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There is a tendency for female referents to designate generic nominations that
are devoid of connotations inherent in the nomination of the feminine gender.
Syntactic markers include the lexemes of male and female references: male, man (men) / female,
woman (women), lady, boy / girl, which form word combinations of different levels of durability: from free:
lady doctor – a woman licensed to practice medicine, male prostitute – a man who engages in sexual intercourse
for money 8, 635, to the phraseological: lady of easy virtue – promiscuous woman, one easily seduced and
bedded 8, 452, family man – a man who is married and has children, devoted to his family 8, 243.
In most cases, fragments of the discourse, in which the syntactically marked
nomination, do not imply sexuality or professional failure of the female referent. Implications that trivialize the female referent are characteristic only of the marker
lady. This may be due to the fact that the nomination of lady as a counterweight to a woman has historically been entrenched for
a woman who does not work, and therefore the combination with the lady marker may imply the lack of professionalism of the referent: “Terms like” lady poet “,” lady doctor “and so on generally lend an
air of amateurism to the person they are describing. Lady poets rarely write for a living “9, 93.
“Female” markers are used to form a nomination, which means prestigious, or
the so-called “male” spheres of activity, where men predominate, for example:
woman astronaut, woman priest, female lawyer, woman police constable 8.
“Male” markers meet with a small group of nominations, which denote
auxiliary professions: a male secretary, a male nurse, or associated with an outside attraction: male
model, or the provision of sexual services: male prostitute, male stripper 10, 45.
Structured gender markers can give a nomination a gender reference
explicitly or implicitly. If there is an explicit gender marker, the gender reference
The attribution of the nominative unit is stable and does not depend on the linguistic
(extralinguistic) context: waitress, schoolboy. The role of explicit morphological markers
play feminine suffixes and semantically marked bases: conductress, policewoman, and
syntactic – semantically marked lexemes: male prostitute, career woman 8.
In the presence of an implicit gender marker, referential reference of a nominative unit
is unstable and is determined with support both for linguistic and extralinguistic contexts
discourse. Implicit markers represent the so-called “social gender”, i.e. cases where
The gender reference of the nominative unit is defined by sociocultural stereotyped
representations of the discourse subject about gender relations in the corresponding lingvocultural
community. For example, a secretary is a person, usually a woman, who handles correspondence, keeps records, and
does general clerical work for an individual, organization 8,735; wet nurse – a woman hired to suckle the child of
another 8,976 – are associated with the female referent, and the doctor – a person licensed to practice medicine 8,
183, armchair strategist – a person who criticizes or suggests an alternative course of action from a position of
hindsight after the event in question 8,59 – with the male referent.
As a kind of marker can serve grammatical forms of personal (he / him, she / her),
possessive (his, her / hers) and recurrent (himself / herself) third person singular pronouns
persons correlated with a male or female referent: This is our manager. She is from Italy 8,
374.
One particular case of structural marking is gender differentiation
conventional identifiers that stand before the surname (less often the name and surname) of the referent-person, for example: Mr White – Mrs / Miss White. These gender identifiers are called “titles
courtesy “(titles of courtesy) or” titles of respect “. Until the twentieth century
unmarked male “title” (Mr), which stands before the name of the person of the male,
corresponded to two female “titles”, marked by such signs as marital status:
married (Mrs) / unmarried (Miss). The New York Times Style Book for Writers and Editors
style for authors and editors of the New York Times) of the 1962 issue focus on the fact that
Mr should be used with the names of male individuals who have a good reputation, and should not
use with the names of persons convicted of a crime or such,

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