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The American Nursing Association defines nursing as “the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations” (American Nurses Association website, 2015). The definition encompasses the main basis of nursing. The metaparadigm theories that define the practice of nursing are four basic concepts identified as nursing, person, health, and environment. These theories address the patient as a whole, the patient’s health and well-being, the patient’s environment and the nursing responsibilities.

The ANA addresses the metaparadigm theories including both internal and external factors as an overall picture of our patients. As nurses we provide care to many individuals from different backgrounds. Regardless of race, sex, or economic status nursing responsibility remains the same. Human caring as the moral ideal of nursing is the central focus of professional practice. It involves concern and empathy, and a commitment to the client’s lived experience of humanity, health and illness.

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