MYANMAR NOBLE COLLEGE
School of Civil Engineering
The University of East London
B.Eng (Civil) Engineering
Mg Than Htet Aung (1)
List of Contents
1. Pavement Design 4-7
1(a) Pavement Management System 4-5
1(b) Pavement Distress 6
1(c) Performance curve of the pavement section 7
2. Highway Alignment Design 7-9
2(a) Minimum Sight Distance 7-8
2(b) Maximum Sight Distance 8-9
3. Junction Design 9-10
4. Highway Maintenance 10-13
5. Highway Drainage Design 13-15
6. Traffic data collection and analysis 15-17
7. Road Safety 17-19
7.(a)Accident remedial measures 17-18
7.(b) Road Safety Audit 18-19
8. Sustainability and Environmental Factors 20-21
List of Figures
Figure (1.1) Performance curve 7
Figure (2.1) The Highway Alignment Design 7
Figure (3.1) Design of intersection 9
Figure (6.1) Location of the Ahlon junction 15
List of Table
Table (6.1) Traffic volume data 16
Table (7.1) Fatal Accident Rates Data 17
1. Pavement Design
1(a) Pavement Management System
The pavement management is a basically define as the procedure of maintaining the pavement arrangement economically. It is a logical method for normally assembling, keeping, and recovering the kind of policymaking data required to make extreme usage of limited maintenance cost. The pavement management is a process that includes a chain of stages that will help the worker evaluate work strategy replacements. Individuals approvals will then be mutual with real decision to make finishing deal judgements. That management can provision results at numerous stages (strategic, network, and project) in the interior society. The judgements ended at individually level consist of:
Planned; In this stage, planner make decisions that affect longstanding plan efforts in the society. These judgements can contain setting routine goals, finance provisions, and protection plans. Network; In this stage, data such as the present and coming network situations are used to make strategic judgements around the effective of several short- and long-term financial plan, the values of many investment plans, and the options work for the pavement network above a usual 5-year timeframe. Project; In this stage, judgements are attentive above a short timeframe (e.g, 2 years) and be able to contain the choice of preservation undertakings, materials, and pavement design depths.
Designing a pavement supervision method is defining as the highway net. A highway net is included of an inventory of the physical features of the highways existence achieved by the organization. Afterward sections are defined in a manner that finest fits the wants the assumed organization, the inventory info for apiece of part is calm by approximating the information or saving totally wanted info.
Data Pavement condition data are a main issue in a little data-driven, policymaking pavement managing method. Inside the pavement managing method, the condition data able to usage to support classify present care and recovery requirements, to forecast upcoming wants, and to evaluate the total effect on the net. Consequently, the kind of condition data required and the close of detail be contingent on the organization and the pavement controlling method used. Condition data will be calm with physical or mechanical data collection techniques.
Existing pavement situation measured, organizations are armed with the data required to forecast upcoming situation of a sector. In pavement controlling, situations are forecast in terms of presentation replicas that approximation the regular amount of pavement weakening for each year. Pavement situations can be forecast for the pavement network spending also regular weakening amounts or presentation forecast models.
In this step, designing the pavement managing procedure is to choose suitable actions for the highway linkage. Managements are carefully select by recurring programs or management activate procedures. The suggested managements are then arranged by grade or advantage/total investigation.
Project results may be informed spending dissimilar ways to highpoint key elements which will support judgement creators with their last choices. Recording is an active technique of connecting not only the commendations as of the pavement controlling procedure but also transporting connected info to judgement creators. The information be able to used to create information and diagrams to excerpt applicable info relating to some sections below concern. The outcomes be able to obtainable moreover by using typical diagrams and reports or personalized reviews.
The choice of a pavement management instrument is prejudiced by the necessities of the organization and employer’s requirements. The instrument offers a raised area to store the pavement managing evidence and to make changed styles of investigation dependent on whether a worksheet, GIS, or pavement running method (civic or private) is carefully chosen. Dependent on organization, a native organization should select to use a mixture of pavement controlling software and personalized worksheets or GIS software is suitable their wants.
Save the Method Existing Pavement management is a self-motivated procedure that needs systematic informs. The pavement management is not former goings-on, so organizations necessity makes a work to keep informed the data combined in the pavement management method. Data managing is a main element to upholding the record and possession the info present.
1(b) Pavement Distress
The two examples of the pavement distress are cracking and potholes that are typically occurred with AC pavement, JPCP and CPCP.
It is happening in flexible pavements can be categorized in one of three types, i.e. surfacing, fatigue and others. Surfacing crakes which it’s connected with the elderly and weakening the surface bitumen layer due to shirking and toughening bitumen binder with a damage of volatiles. In general, the load is not related with cracks. One kind of the surfacing crack is irregular pattern cracking. These cracks are all referenced from map cracks, star cracks and amorphous cracks. Other form is block cracking which its rectangular blocks. Surfacing cracks which it’s occurred through the full-width of pavement.
Block cracks: it’s divided by the asphalt surface into just about rectangular pieces. The size of the blocks range is just about 0.1 to 10 sq-m. Large blocks cracking is normally related to longitudinal and transverse cracking. Block cracking which its caused by the shrinkage of hot mix bitumen and day-to-day temperature cycling, which outcomes in cyclic stress and strain. That is no load related, while loads be able to rise the severity of the cracks. Block Cracking is usually happened which it’s indicated that bitumen has toughened significant. And it is usually happening over a great portion of pavement area, but sometimes that will be happened simply in no traffic flow zones. It is measured by square feet or square meters of surface area. The surface cracks are additional protuberant on tinny surfacing such as slurries, sand seals, and the block cracking additional prominent on asphalt concrete surfacing. The cracking lines start from the upper and growth to the lowest asphalt coat.
Potholes: the shapes of the potholes are bowl holes’ shape and various sizes on the pavement surface. Normally, a pothole is well-thought-out significant if the diameter is greater than 150mm and the depth is greater than 25mm. Potholes are minor of the distress that developed from the cracks. The entrance of dampness into the pavement reduces the structural size of the layers and thus speeding up the development of the pothole. In patches condition must be recorded and restored. Entails patching which its repair of the potholes and it is subtraction of the faulty layers and normally, replace a bituminous mixture. Patch worsening mentions to the situation of the patch and necessary the identical remedial actions as potholes.
1(c) Performance curve of the pavement section
Figure (1.1) Performance curve
The pavement age at the unacceptable condition = 15 years
2. Highway Alignment Design
2(a) Minimum Sight Distance
Figure (2.1) The Highway Alignment Design
Degree of curve, D = 15?
A pine tree, M = 40ft
Wide lane = 16ft
M = (5730D) × (1-cos (SD200))
40 = (573015) × (1-cos (15S200))
40 = 382 × (1-cos 0.075S)
40 = 382 – 382cos(0.075S)
-342 = -382 cos(0.075S)
0.9 = cos(0.075S)
cos-10.9 = 0.075S
25.842 = 0.075S
S = 344.56 ft
The minimum sight distance along the curve is 344.56 ft.
2(b) Maximum Sight Distance
dPRT = 1.47 Vt
344.56 = 3.675V
SSD = dPRT +dMT344.56 = 1.47 Vt + 1.075v2a344.56 = 1.47v×2.5 + 1.075v211.2344.56 = 3.675v+0.09v2X= -b±b2-4ac2a= -3.675±3.6752- 4 (0.09)(344.56)2(0.09)= -3.675±13.5 – 124.12(0.09)X= -3.675±10.50.18X= – 78.75 or X = 37.92fts-1
Vmax= 37.92 × 36005280Vmax= 26 mph
The maximum speed recommended for this curved should be 26 mph.
3. Junction design
Figure (3.1) Design of intersection
For major road
V = 50mph
ISO =1.47v (J + ta)
=1.47×73.332.0+2.5 = 485ft.
For Minor Road
V = 20mph
= 20×528060×60 = 29.33 fts-1
ISO = 1.47v (J + ta)
= 1.47×29.33 2.0+2.5 = 194ft.
The intersection distance of major road = 485 ft.
The intersection distance of minor road = 194 ft.
4. Highway Maintenance
Highway maintenance is necessary in order to reservation the road in its formerly built situation, keep neighboring incomes and user safety, and afford effective, suitable transportable lengthways the direction. Inappropriately, maintenance is frequently ignored or wrongly did subsequent in quick worsening road and final disappointment from together climatic and vehicle use effects. So as to strategy for highway maintenance wants, it is an essential to save a whole set of “in place of constructed” strategies and histories of totally care processes and explanations. The as constructed strategy should have: Comprehensive work index, Comprehensive past of job from preparation step to build, Photographic histories, Exact site and explanations of any uneven situations in relative to the highway site, Exact site of culverts and other drainage features and all major changes made to the original strategy.
Persons performance the conservation is perhaps the greatest valued instrument for any conservation program is the information and knowledge increased. Each effort should be made to remember capable, well-informed, and knowledgeable persons in these places not only from the position of introducing and performing a good conservation package, but for upcoming highway preparation wants as well. In determining on a suitable level of conservation for a specific road or road sector, thought must be assumed to the quantity and kind of vehicle usage and physiographic and climatic variables which may influence drainage constructions. Nowadays, drainage system maintenance, road surface maintenance, environmental practices and emergency response are current maintenance activities for highway and that all description are as followed.
Drainage structures must be reserved free of wreckage and obstacles. On anew created roads, or in upstream zones where weighty earth touching is taking place (e.g., town improvement, logging, mining, etc.), spring-cleaning may have to be additional recurrent. Grass rising in drains, unless it is thick sufficient to reason a main impairment to movement, should not be removed during dusting. Similarly, shoulder and cut banks must not be dent. The objective in “dragging a drain” is to ranking the drain thus as to clean it of rubbish that can distract movement from the drain toward the road surface. Hand clearing with a scoop is actual when the effort load is bright or the attendance of constructions make it unreasonable to use heavyweight tools. The working procedure of a grader are as follow; cross drainage and flag all culverts, removal problems, rocks, and other risks beforehand ranking starts, the ditch cut only bottommost and shoulder; sidestep damaging the cut slope; do not reparation the cut of slope, surface reworking with spread fines into the road and Sidestep at work around drains or other waterway intersection structures so as to minimalize harm to inlets.
The road surfaces must be revised only as essential needed to be responsible for cleanly surface and a decent slope or peak for drainage. Every season of the roads will need repeated checking for subgrade wear and surface. During wet period, Rutting and damage of ballast frequently happen. By removing the peak and ballast, snow exclusion tools can be destroying the surface of road. When needed to retain constant use road, a plan must be in the place to provide ballast. Large amounts of compounds are normally used to treat surfaces of the road to minimum wear, decrease dirt. The salts are found in stream with high concentrate when the main element causal to stream current contains of groundwater during dry period short flows. The methods of the practices to support minimum effects from road chemicals consist of control application, use extra caution near the streams and removal of excess chemical and treatment of container.
Using a large amount of single chemical as required, concentration and rate of application are provided the wanted end product. And should be aware of the weather situations. During rainfall, should not do that apply chemicals instantly previous to. The adequate training will be provided, enactment standards, and management application employees and tools. Chemicals applying avoid that where the road junction a channel and for either side 20 m (60 ft). If needed, Between the road and the stream will be provided a filter stripe. Avoid spillage close or hooked on streams. Should not do that, below somewhat conditions, release in usage chemical into a stream. The area of the storage container must be clean, where the waste of the water can be securely calm and preserved. If needed, pull together and ship excess dangerous chemicals to legal risky waste removal facility.
An active method of industry with storm harm to highways and property is to offer for an emergency response sequencer in which employees and tools can be militarized as wanted on tiny sign. This conception is likely in repetition to that production with emergency procedures used in fire control. The objective of the plan is to protect damage of lifetime or wound, protect harm to soils, streams, fisheries, and other resources, protect or minimalize injury to wealth developments, isolated stuff, roads, and other features, afford for effective, reasonable, and essential usage of obtainable funds, tools, and workforces and estimate structural and source injury when it happens and determine wants for counteractive measures to avoid additional injury. Essential substances to contain in a storm response exploit strategy are: a method to collect and investigate climate, soil, and highway circumstances, a statement scheme among workforces accountable for starting the storm act strategy, establishment of organizational plans and responsibilities for prevention and control of storm damage, approaches of funding and recording budgets of workforces and tools; plan of personalities lawful to usage funds, workforces, and tools and storm harm recording processes
The weather information would be calm every day and would contain day-to-day sums of rainfall, increasing rainfall per storm, total per period, month, etc. All of the info showing amounts run-off, snow pack accumulations or flux rates, temperature alterations, wind and barometric pressure should be noted. As the warrant conditions, be able to be requested the frequent data updates. For the storms rating system, for examples used for fires, local knowledge can be improved based on past information. In any circumstance, an exact set of doings ranging as of remark to full the region wide patrols and labor groups will be recognized.
5. Highway Drainage Design
Highway gully is a drainage pit protected by an open metallic grating situated on the road edge. The main purpose of the drainage is raining water from the highway into the sewerage scheme. The highway gully is connected with the pipe that’s going to the surface of water sewer. The highway drain possibly will outfall into the rivers, ponds, soakaway etc. A soak away is a drainage pit covered by a metallic protection or sometimes by soil. The purpose of the drain is allowed rain water from houses to flood in to the neighboring subsoil. That all are every so often used to drain the highway.
A surface water sewer is connected with highway drain to underground drain to the sewerage cure workings. The purpose of the drainage is to transfer surface water, and in some conditions surface water and foul sewerage joined, to the sewerage cure workings.
Highway drainage methods are fitted to imprisonment surface water run-off to relieve flooding and defend the fabric of the road. Most of the open ditch drainage systems are momentous and the duty of the connecting landowner for repairs. The Highway Authority are controlled to clean and return the outline of these drains as suitable.
Highway drainage objectives are as followed: avoid flooding, ponding and seepage, and save the carriageway, cycle way and footway as allowed of vertical water as possible, ensure surface water dropping on the highway enters the drainage system or natural stream as quickly as imaginable, Save the fundamental road structure as dry as possible, avoid wound or injury affected by dangerous surface water, Avoid highway surface water flooding nearby possessions and Avoid obstructions in related highway drainage systems with resulting flooding.
Highway drainage needs repetitive repairs to confirm its sustained competence. During period, extra repairs is important to confirm the method lasts to function appropriately. Gullies and their instant pipe joining are deflated and cleaned as part of the yearly active repairs instructed. The incidences are rural areas and urban areas, once in a year and high speed dual-carriageways, twice in a year.
However, where persistent problems are identified with gully cleansing for example, being blocked by silt and detritus on a regular basis, the gullies are specifically identified and programmed for a greater cleansing frequency.
Some rural areas, the carriageway is drained by non-piped drains consisting of “grips” cut into the verge which feed into a ditch. Present grips and back ditches on the whole highway network will be re-cut and cleansed on an annual basis as part of the pro-active keep instructed.
Improvements need to manage with varying climatic circumstances, and to preparation insufficient parts of the scheme. Previously some drainage scheme is providing a full valuation of present scheme would be made to decide the whether an acceptable answer could be got by methodically dusting or spreading the current planning.
In the following, the structural repair programed and arranged will be added in drainage development system. Flooding of housing or marketable possessions, ponding on the highway offering risk for road users, the seepage of water is the highway on curve, to remove drainage to the highway requiring instant works, land close flooding to the highway will be careful by mean of dispersed amount on the base of the site exact assessment,
The covers of drainage, the highway drainage method will be rearranging by doing gully grilles and on the other ironwork that is the part of drainage cover if they are larger than 20mm under or overhead the all-purpose such as carriageway, cycleway and footway surface where recognized or informed.
6. Traffic Data Collection
The location of the place that we made the survey is Ahlon Rd and Baho Rd joint called Ahlon Junction (Shown in figure 1). Especially, this junction has a lot of passenger are going at morning and evening. That place was nearby SIMIN Market, Dagon Centre II, People’s Park and Academy Hospital. We collected the traffic data volume on 20th April 2018. At that time the weather was so hot for a while. The main purpose of the traffic data collection is easy to transport one places to another for road users.
Figure (6.1) Location of the Ahlon junction
Time Mini-Bus Taxi Private Car Motorcycle Truck Other
9:00-9:30 8 212 280 4 42 10
9:30-10:00 10 256 316 6 68 4
10:00-10:30 16 272 320 8 54 8
10:30-11:00 14 302 216 4 36 14
Total 48 1042 1132 22 200 36
% 2% 42% 45.6% 0.9% 8.1% 1.4%
Table (6.1) Traffic volume data
The traffic volume data collection for 2h starts at 9:00 AM to 11 AM and used Direct Manual Method. It was a hot humid day. Sky was partly cloudy. The result showed in fig (2) Pile Chart of Passenger Car Unit in Ahlone road by making this survey. The Traffic Survey is very important in towns which can get how much traffic in the road.
There were so many vehicles crossing the junction which was included mini-bus, taxies, private cars, motorcycle, trucks and other. When we reach that place, it was 9:00AM at Morning. The survey started at 9:00AM to 9:30 AM. In that 2h, it’s divided four quarters and noted for the result and its 15 mins long for each quarter.
In the result, it gets 48 min-buses, 1042 taxis, 1132 private cars, 22 motorcycles,200 trucks and 36 others types of vehicles which crossed the traffic during in the survey time. In 48 mini-buses, there were ferries, travel buses are included. There were so many private cars, crossing the junction in 3rd quarter. There’s a few motorcycle cross throughs the junction.
Vehicle composition shows that nearly 90% of total traffic was light vehicles such as private car and taxi, 2% of Mini-bus, 0.9% of Motorcycle, 1.4% of other vehicles such as Ambulance car, etc, and only 8.1% was truck respectively. The reason for high proportion of light vehicle is the proximity of the location to residential area of high income group people. The taxis were not highly occupied. But private cars were almost fully occupied. It can be assumed that, more people were travelling by their own car.
In conclusion, when calculating the traffic volume result, nearly a half (45.6%) of private cars can get a traffic jam. Because there’s a lot of private cars are in town nowadays. And then, over two third (42%) of taxies can occur a traffic jam in these days.
7. Road Safety
7.(a)Accident remedial measures
Months Case Nos. of Death Nos. of Injuries
January 107 22 137
February 145 36 190
March 183 43 233
April 153 33 141
May 136 30 170
June 125 18 133
July 130 29 103
August 138 21 114
September 162 39 179
October 101 27 127
November 131 19 152
December 112 10 101
Total – 1623 327 1780
Table (7.1) Fatal Accident Rates Data
The location of the CBD area is TARMWE Township in YANGON Division, where is the most famous CBD area which come out the most recent fatal, seriously or slightly crashes data. March is the maximum seriously accident rates and that happened the accident list 2017.
According to the Fatal Accident Rates Data, the total collection of the accident cases was 1623, total number of death was 327 and the total numbers of injuries was 1780 in 2017. And, the total collection of accident rates result was come out 183 in March, the total amount people death was 43 nos. and the total amount of hurts people was 233 nos., the number of male was 183 and female was 50 respectively. Furthermore, the September was followed by March’s accident records, accounted 162 accident facts, the total amount of death people was 39nos. and the total amount of hurts peoples was 179number of male was 153 and the number of female was 26 individually. Moreover, TARMWE is the highest township inside the CBD area, there were 7 or 8 accident records in a day, closely 4 peoples died and around 10 peoples were injured.
The main causes of the accident were drunk-driving and speed by using Helmet and Seat-Belt to reduce injury rates. Alcohol is a main hazard influence for road traffic crashes. With global investigation showing that road crash hazard start to rise exponentially at 0.04 grams/deciliter (g/dl) WHO commends situation and applying drink driving regulation for all-purpose residents., with a blood alcohol concertation BAC) limit of 0.05g/dl. With driver inexperience indication to substantively rise the risk of alcohol-related crashes. The mentions of WHO a BAC of no larger than 0.02g/dl for beginner and provisional.
An extreme speed of 40 km/h in town region is measured greatest practice in order to keep walkers and other weak road users from serious injuries. Rising indication advise the necessity to reduce the speed limit even further (30 km/h) in high density pedestrian areas. Damaged exactly, standard-quality motorcycle helmets have been presented to decrease the danger of serious head injuries by 69%. Seat-Belt use is an extremely actual road safety interference, shown to reduce the risk of fatal and serious injury by 40-65%.
In conclusion, drunk-driving of the car accidents are occurred in every 10 days and thousands of accidents were occurred (1589) cause when the one of the driver are sign a touch immediately. So, all of the people are avoided that if someone want to drive after dunk. Above four main cases are to reduced accident injury. Moreover, never should be ignored to keep stop signs, should look mutually way when passing the stopping sign.
7.(b) Road Safety Audit
A Road Safety Audit(RST) is an assessment of a highway development system throughout design, at the end of construction and post-construction, to identify road safety problems and to suggest measures to remove or ease any concerns. RST are supposed by groups of professionals trained by the skills of accident examination or road safety engineering.
The road all planned arrangements and an independent Road Safety Audit are needed to have the majority. The aim of the Road Safety Audits is classifying possible road safety hazard rising strategy change to the road layout but they don’t check the technical beside design values or traffic regulations.
The completion of initial design is started from Road Safety Audits and where probable, previously planning approval is granted. That is the final case at which requirement of the land may be bigger and so that necessary to study completely any road safety issues which a bearing upon land take before planning agreement may have is impressive. At first, all of the group followers will visit together and the examination of current highway layout or features and where the fresh highway development system ties into the present highway.
The road safety audits stage two are known the stage of the works detail design completion. The team will be able to study the junction’s layout, signs position, carriageway markings, lighting provision and other issues. At stage two audit, all of the group members intend to visit together and the highway outline or feature existing will be examined and wherever the scheme ties of the highway development into the current highway.
The third stage of road safety audit must be started when the highway development system is noticeably complete and properly before the works are open to road users. The audit team need to be examined the arrangement site during daylight and darkness, so the night process is mostly hazards can also be recognized. The audit group leader should request legislatures of the police, the Authority of local and preserving manager to accompany the Audit team to proposal their opinions for the third stage audit.
In the initial year a highway development arrangement is open to traffic, a checked must be kept on the number of individual wound accidents that happen, that why serious problems can be recognized and corrective work agreed rapidly. Accident checking reports should be arranged at final stage by using 12 months and 36 months’ accident information from the time arrangement come to be operational.
8. Sustainability and Environmental Factors
Nowadays, over half of the world’s population are lived in urban areas. Housing and marketable space are going to a community, reintroduction an economically depressed down area, and future planning for the population growing are essential in current cities. Frequently the sounds are less complex than when planning changed, thus the urban planners are needed to consider a number of detail. All of the urban Planner have to consider in the following key factors when a region is developed.
A new space of a civic means disbursing consideration the area’s surrounding, which its consists of three main classifications: Physical environment: This consists of the city or town location, such as geologic olden times. The climate can play an essential role in a physical surroundings area, such as the land’s current use nearness to water and food resources. Social environment: The current social fabric of a town or city is a critical part in the improvement or regeneration of a specific region. Arrangers must pay consideration to the possessions obtainable to changed demographics in the area, like public transportation. Economic environment: Lastly, the planner must know which commercial issue may support or delay a city’s improvement. The volume and kinds of businesses will influence how a region is laid out. Occupants’ socioeconomic levels as well as any occupation or commercial tendencies in a district will also influence how planners develop an urban region.
Where urban planning used to trust on plans to design spaces, nowadays develop more about the aims of a specific area. Advanced on, nevertheless, most of the cities chose to build expressways in the place of historic buildings or neighborhoods, which were frequently destroyed despite public outcry. This is a more modern iteration of the problems urban planners have met in the previous. Nowadays, capitals contain their populations in planning and regeneration efforts in a process well-known as participating arrangement. The designers and city peoples get the chance to have a say in the capital’s plans, thus developing civic awareness nearby existing plans. For example, the peoples of a quaint, historic district may not need a big-box marketing store in their back yards, but those living in a rural area may claim such growths.
Although the existing populations considering is important, in that taxpayers need to say in decisions that influence them, and also need to look to the future. For instant, the urban planner will pay attention to people trends to symbol out how much space the city needs for upcoming constructions. When the residents are going up and the creator needs to build flat buildings center, they might need to build high-rises rather than smaller two-story buildings if they need to accommodate future growth. Likewise, growths in tourism would call for other hotels and events venues. Eventually, planners look to an exact result rather than a timeframe. They all know that the population might growth, but it could be five years or 20 years.
Particularly the urban planner must be kept in the own idea is the past of the buildings areas. While a construction possibly will not be able to repair, it can be a past site or break through. City occupants may need to reservation the area in good turn of building a fresh strip mall or, as said before, a highway. Most of the planners are kept in notice the tax encouragements to the different regions. The tax of the credits will help for fund supportable or green policies and to get improve entree from public transportation or low- to moderate-income accommodation. Some of the encouragements can help for small businesses to open in actual regions or neighborhood.
In added to education, the planners should have a clear knowledge of how to make effective strategies for present and upcoming residents. The right data is coming most of these. Eagle-eyed offers planners and other officials with a number of GIS results that contain high-resolution midair imagery for scheduling and diagramming. Not only are this equipment ideal for those in urban preparation and progress, but they can be used for emergency planning, terrain analysis, and subsurface infrastructure engineering studies.
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Fatal encounters with police analysed by CBC, By Lynn Desjardins | [email protected] CITIES – RESPONSE TO URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
Ksenija Poredoš, B.Sc. Geography
Consideration of Environmental Factors in Planning and Development of Urban Areas