Memory is considered as a process in minds that are responsible for maintaining information over time (Matlin, 2005). The common way to examine the memory itself is via recalling information. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin’s theory, memory can be structured into a model known as multi-store memory model that are composed of sensory memory, short-term memory (STM), and long-term memory (LTM) store. First, this model works by encoding incoming information so that it can enter our sensory memory that are limited by our perception. If individuals really give their attention, the information will be transferred from sensory memory to the STM store. Then, those information in STM will be transferred to LTM store if it has been rehearsed repetitively. Generally, the information in LTM will be recalled via retrieval to be stored back into STM.
An original study of determining the effect of rehearsal methods on memory that was conducted by Alesha B. Humphrey (2006) had involved 107 undergraduate introductory psychology students as the participants.
Those participants were divided into three groups and would received set of paper, that consists of instructions and spaces to recall the words, according to the group that they were in. For the first group or control group, participants were only allow to see the list of 20 words in the slides for 60 seconds and recall it straightaway. While, for the second and third group, participants would study the list of 20 words in the slides with rehearsal method of either highlighting or writing down words for 60 seconds and then recall it. Results showed that participants who recalled words without any rehearsal method and with rehearsal method of highlighting had about the same number of words recalled with the mean score of 5.00 and 5.06. Whereas, the participants who had rehearsal method of writing showed to have more number of words recalled with mean score of 6.94. Thus, this suggests that writing down words tend to help individuals to produce greater number of words recalled compare to both rehearsal method of highlighting and no rehearsal.
The aim of my study is to determine whether rehearsal method of highlighting and no rehearsal method are more likely to increase the number of words recalled among the high school students. I believe that this is an interesting question to investigate on because the evidence could be used to support and give an idea for high school students, who had lots of works and tasks to complete, on the effective way for them to read or study a text within a short amount of time.