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In the Mesopotamian religion there are 4 main gods of Earth, Water, Air and the Heavens. The Ancient Egyptians invented lots of things we still use today, such as paper, pens. Egypt and Mesopotamia were both developed in river valleys. However, due to their differences they shared some of the same needs but are different from each other in the terms of politics, culture and religion.
In Mesopotamia, which was a land of not only multiple kingdom sand empires but of many political views as well, they controlled and conquer nearby kingdoms. In Egypt, they had an upper Egypt and lower Egypt, but were joined together around the time of pharaoh Menes, they had pharaohs, the kings, and rulers of the land that were said to be gods sent to Earth in human form to rule and govern the people of the world. The art was used for a specific function such as wall paintings, statues of god and kings in temples served a ritual propose they were an integral part of a performance of rituals. Egypt and Mesopotamia have similarities about their social understanding and both had a society in which women were controlled by males. Ancient Egypt had a highly centralized government and had an efficient bureaucracy and that the pharaohs’ exalted position meant that rulers had a greater power over the entire country. The governments of ancient Mesopotamia, were more regional in character, with meant each city had its own government, which also included democracy. Kings became higher as the civilization developed, but elected assemblies had important powers, too, even over the kings.
The Egyptians had their own writing which was called hieroglyphics, which was used to tell a story by having pictured symbols. The Mesopotamians had multiple languages and used different one for a different regions such as Akkadian, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Phoenician languages. The Egyptians used the Meroitic language. Both agricultural societies were dependent upon rivers such as the Nile in Egypt and the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, they would also have engaged in the agriculture and traded with other civilizations. The Egyptians characteristics of culture were to have order and a love of stability which many assigns to the reliability of the Nile’s annual cycle. Life in the Mesopotamian city-states was generally more difficult and more uncertain, they were similar in their basic social stratification, with a noble class, owning most of the land, on top and peasants and slaves at the bottom. Both cultures were into their religions. In Egypt, there were supreme gods such as the sun god Ra, Amon, and Osiris with each male god having a female goddess companion. . Both cultures also believed that they themselves were created for serving their gods. Culture for Mesopotamia also had religions that had many gods and goddesses. Egypt’s art and architecture were very different from Mesopotamia such as pyramids, temples, rigid pharaohs to flowing art of Amarna.
Egypt and Mesopotamia had their own beliefs and their own religion, but one that was similar in their religious standpoint was that they were both polytheistic, this meant that they had more than one god or goddess and were based on nature. Both religions, priests played a crucial role, but the two differed in some ways. The estimated 700 gods of ancient Egypt were often personifications of natural forces, like the sun and the Nile. One important characteristic of ancient Egyptian religion was the Egyptians’ veneration of the pharaohs as reincarnated gods. The Egyptians are also famous for their view of the afterlife. One major difference between the Egyptian and Mesopotamian religions was the “local” or regional quality of the latter. Early on in Mesopotamia, specific deities came to be identified with specific locations. Another distinction was the hierarchical division of Mesopotamian deities, with four gods–those of heaven, earth, water and air being the highest powers from which all lesser gods derived. Both civilizations believed that the gods created them. They both worshipped their names from the numerous gods and the cults that honored the deities, and priests in both religions and there were no special clothes, and they also made daily offering in the temples and had festivals open to public. The Egyptians gods and goddesses were recognized to be supplementary towards being ethical, mental, physical, and spiritual figures. They had rituals stressing regularity and cyclical nature of life and the afterlife was orderly predictable and pleasant. On the other hand, Mesopotamia’s major religion had gods and goddesses that dealt more with natural phenomenon and the human body. They were thanked and blamed for natural occurrences and disasters that happened in Mesopotamia. They had ritual stressing sacrifice to appease gods and the afterlife was dark and unpleasant. Although when you look at the meanings of the Egyptian and Mesopotamian gods and goddesses, they had the same meaning to them as the other society. One of the other similarities between the religions is that their gods and goddesses often had a human form, an animal form, and sometimes even combined. Between the two cultures can also be found in their advances in mathematics, geometry, and astronomy. Differences between Mesopotamia and Egypt can be widely associated to their differences in geography.

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