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Factors Affecting the Absenteeism of Grade 12, GAS Students in Culasi National High School
A Research Proposal For
Practical Research II
Researchers:Precious Ann B. Turbanos
Gemma G. Artates
Renz Shein Fuentes
Adviser:
Mr. John Tianchon
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
The school is known as the training ground of the people to achieve their main goals in life. Along with everyone’s journey, the occurrence of unwanted circumstances are truly inevitable which commonly lead students to commit absences. Recently, the rate of students’ absences is gradually increasing. Absenteeism is the frequent absence of a student, employee, and other member of an organization without any valid reason. Often, absenteeism is the cause of reduction of performance level of an individual in an organization. The main problem of today’s educational system is the truancy/habitual absenteeism of the students in school without proper vindication of such action.
According to Merriam Webster Dictionary, absenteeism is a “chronic absence”. In the context of school, it is the habitual or intentional failure to attained school. While every students may miss some school activities now and then, absence becomes a problem when the student is away from school for many days. Going to school regularly is crucially important for a student’s education and social skills chronically absent students are at a disadvantage both socially and academically. They miss out on critical stages of social interaction and development with their peers. School absenteeism is an alarming problem for administrators, teachers, parents, society in general, and pupils and particular. Unaccepted absences have a negative effect on peer relationship (Malcolm, Wilson, Davidson, and Kirk 2003). Absenteeism also affects the teacher’s ability to present a class work in a sequential and organized way. This can have an effect on the progress of all the students in the class. Absenteeism has its advantages and disadvantages that widens into different other reasons of the cause. Those reasons must be taken accounted for as absenteeism is a behavioral of a student that can lead them to either dropping out or to bringing this habit until they get employed.

Absenteeism is a common problem in every school institution. For teachers, it is one of the most annoying experiences for them is when students are absent. They prepare lesson plans with the objective that 100% of the class will learn and it is most satisfying when all students are present on that day and the days thereafter to ensure maximum learning capacity. Sadly, it is very difficult to achieve perfect attendance. No matter how interesting and well-prepared the lessons and teaching materials are, there are bound to be students who miss out on the day’s activities—willingly or unwillingly.

Statement of the Problem
The main concern of this study was to determine the Factors Affecting the Absenteeism of Grade 12, GAS Students in Culasi National High School.

Specifically, this study aims to:
1. Identify whether personal-related aspect is the main reason of the increasing rate of absenteeism in Culasi National High School, Grade 12 GAS students.

2. Identify whether family-related aspect is the main reason of the increasing rate of absenteeism in Culasi National High School, Grade 12 GAS students.

3. Identify whether school-related aspect is the main reason of the increasing rate of absenteeism in Culasi National High School, Grade 12 GAS students.

Hypothesis of the study
Based from the foregoing problems, this hypothesis is advanced.
There is a significant relationship between the personal-related aspect, family-related aspect and school-related aspect to the ongoing absenteeism of Grade 12 GAS students in Culasi National High School.

Theoretical Framework
In sociological and social psychological studies of work behavior, measures of absenteeism have often been used in the analysis. Most often the measure have been looked upon us dependent variables; indicators of the effectiveness of the organization or also indicators of satisfaction and adjustment of the students. Some studies have had as their explicit goal to find correlates of absenteeism and spell out the causal relationship; thereby making it possible to improve the situation that is to reduce the degree of absenteeism. The influence of personal-related aspect that involves laziness and lacking of students’ interest towards school, family-related aspect that involves parents’ intervention in their children’s education and school-related aspect that involves facilities, facilitators and school environment for students play a vital role in this problem. With these, the researchers are motivated to find out the aspect that triggers the increasing absenteeism rate of Grade 12, GAS students in Culasi National High School, the most.

Conceptual Framework
This study considers the personal, family and school-related aspects as the independent variable. While, the ongoing increase of absenteeism rate is the dependent variables of the study.
Absenteeism
Personal-related Aspect
Family-related Aspect
School-related Aspect
Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Figure 1: Schematic Diagram Showing the Framework of the Study.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study aims to bestow clearer and precise information to people about the ongoing student absenteeism within Culasi National High School. It can help everybody to define the causes of the increasing rate of student’s absenteeism behavior and the inimical effects of this so called “Societal Strain” into the society. It will generally wake up the mind of an individual about the brilliant and high quality significance of education for the future.

Through this study, readers will know that the students who don’t attend their classes frequently are generally those that struggle to engage behaviorally and/or academically. Although, it is not entirely clear whether different types of contextual or self-system variables affect students’ engagement or contribute to their decision not to attend classes. According to data collected by the national education longitudinal study of 1988, Rumberger found that students with moderate to high absenteeism, behavior problems and having no school or outside activities were highly predictive of dropping out.

The research discussed here on predicting high school dropouts would be nearly inconsequential unless something could be done about it. In addition, many respondents were aware of the importance of having a high school diploma. Eighty-one percent of the people interviewed said that getting a high school diploma was essential to their personal success. Furthermore, the great majority of dropouts regretted dropping out: 74% said they would have stayed in school if they could decide again. In addition, 76% of those who said they regretted their decision to drop out said that they would return to school if that option existed for students in their age group (Bridgeland et al., 2006). These individuals are clearly not lost causes, and there is value in identifying students at risk of dropping out. If we can reach these students before they drop out and intervene to keep them in school, we can improve the future of both individual students and the nation as a whole. (Burrus, & Roberts, 2012)
SCOPE AND DELIMITATION
Out of 46 Grade 12 of Culasi National High School, 33 students were used as a sample in conducting the survey. This study limits its coverage on the grade 12 students only. Its main purpose is to identify the common problems that they encounter and to propose possible solutions regarding this problems. Each of the respondents are given the same questionnaires to answer. And this study focuses on the current grade 12 students of the present school year, 2017 -2018.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
One major barrier to learning faced by students and teachers in every school today is a lack of consistent attendance in classrooms. Although many schools realize the importance of this issue, educational researchers have not consistently given this topic the attention it deserves (Corville-Smith, 1995). Additionally, while some attempts to increase attendance rates have been successful, the methodologies used have had notable disadvantages including cost, drainage of faculty resources, difficulty of implementation, or time consumption (DeKalb, 1999; Lamdin, 1996).

Researchers have attacked this problem from a number of directions. For example, interventions have been community-based (McPartland & Nettles, 1991; Reid & Bailey-Dempsey, 1995), family based (Copeland, Brown, & Hall, 1974; Volkmann, 1996), and school-based (Gottfredson, Jones, & Gore, 2002; Noonan & Thibeault, 1974). The intent of this paper is to summarize existing research on improving attendance rates in schools and offer suggestions for school psychologists on how they can become involved in formulating interventions to help schools deal with problems of attendance.

Absenteeism
Truancy has been labeled one of the top 10 major problems in every schools, and rates of absenteeism have reached as high as 30% in some cities. School officials are unsure as to the proportion of legitimate verses illegitimate absences, nationwide estimates have ranged from 1-22% for illegitimate absences (Guevermont, 1986; Nielsen & Gerber, 1979). These studies may actually underestimate non-illness related absences due to the large margin of error likely to be found in self-report data of this nature. It is quite possible that the proportion of illegitimate absences has changed since these data were reported; however, no recent estimates are available. Additionally, the proportion of illegitimate absences may vary substantially among school districts in different parts of the country.

The 2013 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey (FLEMMS) covered around 36 million population aged 6 to 24 years. According to the survey, one in every ten or about 4 million Filipino children and youth was out-of-school in 2013. Out-of-school children is defined in the FLEMMS as persons aged 6 to 14 years who are not attending school while out-of-school youth as persons aged 15 to 24 years who are not attending school, have not finished any college or post-secondary course, and are not working. Out-of-school children and youth in ARMM comprised 14.4 percent, which is the highest across regions. Six regions have proportion of out-of-school children and youth higher than the national figure at 10.6 percent, namely, SOCCSKSARGEN, Davao, Central Luzon, Zamboanga Peninsula, Caraga and MIMAROPA (ranging from 11.2 to 12.3 percent). Meanwhile, the proportion of out-of-school children and youth was lowest in CAR at 7.1 percent.

In general, the proportion of persons who are out-of-school was higher among the youth than among children. Excluding CAR, the proportion of out-of-school youth across regions ranged from 14.5 percent to 20.4 percent. For children, the figure ranged from 1.7 percent to 4.9 percent, except ARMM with 10.9 percent. In terms of gender, the proportion of out-of-school children and youth was higher among females than males in all regions.

The 2013 FLEMMS results showed that of the nearly 4 million out-of-school children and youth, 22.9 percent have entered into union or marriage. Another 19.2 percent cited insufficient family income to send child to school as the reason for not attending school (this refers to all educational expenses other than tuition fee), while 19.1 percent lack the interest in attending school.

Among females, 4 out of every 10 have already entered marriage while 3 in every 10 males have no interest in attending school. The proportion of out-of-school children and youth whose family income was not sufficient to send child to school was 22.7 percent and 17.0 percent, among males and females, respectively. (PSA, 2015.

Background of the Study
Absence nowadays cannot be separated from the individual who was called a student. It is easy to see that it has been a necessity in the nature of students, so it is not surprising if this habit continues to fall among students as examples of primary, secondary, and even at university level, the problem still persists. Other than that, the sector is also facing the field of employment in the same problems that their employer impasse in the absence of these phenomena solution.
Education is not only the transfer of information, knowledge and skills from the teachers to students but the actual transformation of a person to become educated. Being educated mean one has access to prime states of mind no matter what kind of situation one is facing. One is able to act efficiently, perceive exactly, and think clearly to accomplish one’s goals and aspirations.

The study of absenteeism is very important for any college. The word absenteeism means the absence of a student from class when he is expected to be present at school/college. When teacher has no information in advance, that the student will not report for class if he has taken leave to which he is entitled or on ground of sickness or in case of accident. Thus absence may authorize or unauthorized wilful or caused by circumstance beyond teacher’s control.

An important factor to the success in school among children and youth is attendance. For children, particularly to those with lower socio-economic status, better attendance is related to higher academic achievement according to results of studies. From kindergarten, those who always attend school gains higher scores on tests than their classmates who are always absent.

Frequent unexcused absence is an obvious indicator of outcomes that are undesirable in youth that includes failure in the academic, dropping out of school, substance abuse, gang involvement, and criminal activity.

Therefore, we feel that this problem is very serious. As such we take responsibility to investigate and find a solution to this problem from continuing to happen. At sometimes, we can know the accurate information about these problems and can be able to cope with this problem from the root.

Chapter III
METHODOLOGY
In this chapter, I discuss the research design, area of study, population, sample of the population, sampling technique, instrument for data collection, validation of the questionnaire, administration of the instrument and method of data analysis.

3.1 The Study Context
The study has been carried out in a Public Secondary High School. The participants were Culasi National High School (CNHS) final year students.
3.2Research Design
The researcher chose a survey research design because it best served to answer the questions and the purposes of the study.

The survey research is one in which a group of people or items is studied by collecting and analyzing data from only a few people or items considered to be representative of the entire group. In other words, only a part of the population is studied, and findings from this are expected to be generalized to the entire population (Nworgu, 1991).

3.3Questionnaires
A questionnaire is a sequential set of questions specially designed to tackle a specific objective. Hence it is an inexpensive way to get the required information from a large number of respondents. Often they are the only practicable way to reach a large number of reviewers so that statistical analysis can be carried out. A questionnaire may enable to gather subjective and objective data. Similarly, it may also gather quantitative and qualitative data. Henceforth, it is considered to be the most commonly used instrument by most researchers.

In the formulation of the questions, particular attention to the content, to the wording of the questions, to the form of answers and to the sequence of questions was paid. Another aspect to which due attention was given was to set questions which required no great mental effort as such from the respondents. Also, special importance to the overall design and layout of the questionnaire was attached (Munn and Drever, 1995; Johnson and Johnson, 1999). A questionnaire should be designed such that it allows for collection of information that can be used subsequently as data for analysis. It is important that all key matters are covered.

Advantages of Questionnaires
A questionnaire is easy to administer, quick to fill in and can be answered by all the respondents simultaneously (Hopkins, 1993). The aim, therefore, was to have a quick feedback on the study as time was limited. The questionnaires consisted of close-format, rating scale and a few open-ended questions so as to elicit more profound responses (Cohen, Manion and Morrisson, 2000). The questions dealt about both facts and opinions. Fraenkel and Wallen (1993: 349) emphasize that “close-ended questions are easy to use, score and code for analysis”.

Limitations of Questionnaires
However, sometimes respondents just answer the questionnaire for the sake of the institution as it is an anonymous tool. They may also give bias information as they may not have the information regarding the issue dealt with. Moreover, questionnaires may be sometimes too demanding in terms of lots of small personal questions. In addition, the length of the questionnaires may often discourage the respondents to answer it.

Nevertheless, a questionnaire is very useful in the gathering of primary data and sometimes it reveals the real truth of the actual situations. The questionnaire will be used only to gather information for the teaching staff and students section.

Structure of the Questionnaire
The questionnaire was completely designed to look upon the main objectives of the project and in length of the literature review work in order to reflect the true content of the research. In clear words, each section of the questionnaire is related to a particular objective.

Structure of Questionnaire: Students
Section A: Personal
This part of the questionnaire will consider the different information regarding the profile of the student. This part will target areas like:
Health problems
Psychological factors
School interest
It is also important to notice that only CNHS Grade 12 students were taken for the questionnaire as they are more exposed to the problem and that most of them has been in high school for a number of years. There are 10 questions in this part.

Section B: Family
This section consists of a total of 10 questions. It assesses the following points:
Relationship with family
Financial problems
Economic factors
Section C: School
This part lays emphasis on the main causes of absenteeism. It will target areas like:
School environment
Curriculum development
Relationship with teachers
Relationship with peers
This will enable to know the extent to which absenteeism affects the daily activities and performance of students.

3.8 Reliability
Reliability has been ensured by taking the following measures. Some competent and experienced persons in the field of education were asked to verify the content of the questionnaires and to judge whether or not they are appropriate. They were also asked to make reasoned and critical assessments of questions and possible answers. Weaknesses of the instruments were detected and consequently eradicated.

3.9 Validity
The following actions were taken for the validity purpose of the study:
Detailed information on the subjects was obtained; unambiguous, easy and accurate responses.

I ensured that significance be clearly and carefully stated on the questionnaire; Moreover, the questions were attractive in appearance, neatly arranged, and plainly duplicated.

Care has been taken to minimize loss of subjects as the latter not only limits generalization but also introduces bias.

Care was also taken to prevent the data collectors from, consciously or unconsciously, distorting the data.

The questionnaires were personally distributed. This helped me to administer the instrument properly, to explain the purpose of the study and the meaning of items that was not clear. Questions were invited and responded before the distribution of the questionnaires. Concerning the students’ questionnaires, I had them filled in by the students under supervision. Above all, it was important that questionnaires be distributed only to those who possessed the desired information.

Obviously, I had to make sure that the questions were not long and complex, misleading, double-barreled, emotionally loaded and embarrassing
The questions were presented in good psychological order, proceeding from general to more specific responses.

This research was based upon four characteristics which ensured the validity in communication.

– Truthfulness of statement.

– Comprehensibility of speech.

– Authenticity and sincerity of speakers.

-Appropriateness of the situation. (Habermas in McNiff, 1988)
I can say with a great deal of truth that the instrumentations were implemented in this way, so that no doubt the results and findings were valid and reliable because validity enables the researcher to address his research with honesty and objectivity. Moreover, it is obvious that through this trend of instrumentation, I shall be implementing the technique of qualitative analysis.

3.10 Ethical Issues
Miles and Huberman (1994) warn the researchers about ethical issues; they are of the opinion that the first ethical issue is how worthy the study is. The sample pupils and educators concerned with the research have been clearly informed of my intention and they were assured of my integrity and the value of my study.

Other ethical issues include anonymity and confidentiality of the respondents.

According to Creswell (1994), the researcher needs to take the welfare of the respondents into consideration. In his words, ‘first and foremost the researcher has an obligation to respect his rights, needs, values and the desires of the informants’. Before the interaction with the respondents, I had to ascertain their feelings in this regard. I had to get their permission to involve them in the research.

Arksey and Knight (1999) point out:
‘ Confidentiality is about not disclosing the identity of study participants, and not attributing comments to individuals in ways that can permit the individuals or institutions with which they are associated to be recognized, unless they have expressly consented to being identified.’
To that effect, the respondents’ names were not used so as not to hurt anybody’s feelings in disclosing the facts and contents in the data analysis. Furthermore, all the respondents were assured that the information they have disseminated in the questionnaires would be made available only to my supervisor and me. Moreover, I reiterated that the study was exclusively for academic purposes. Prior agreement to my involvement with the prospective participants had been reached through negotiation with the manager of the school.

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