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EFFECT OF NOSE RADIUS AND APPROACH ANGLE ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS
The performance of a machined part is significantly influenced by its surface roughness. The surface roughness of a machined part depends on the material and the cutting parameters like cutting speed, depth of cut, feed rate and nose radius. There is a direct relationship between the size of the tool’s nose radius and the surface finish produced. The relation between surface roughness and tool’s nose radius is give as: h=f2/8R, hCLA= f2/31.17R, where h is the peak to valley height, hCLA is the center line average roughness, f is the feed and R is the nose radius. Several experimental studies have been performed in order to determine the influence of nose radius on surface roughness.

Kulkarni et al. 1 reported that tool with larger nose radius produces better surface finish as compared to tool with smaller nose radius. This was because the tool with larger nose radius withstand vibration and also the area of contact of the tool with the work surface is more which can easily absorb high cutting force and vibration at high speed and feed rate.
As mentioned by Kumar et al. 2 nose radius is one of the major factor that affects the surface finish of a machined surface. Large nose radius tools have slightly better surface finish than small nose radius tools. Studies revels that large tool nose radii only gives finer surface finish, but comparable tool wear with small nose radius tools. Tool life based on flank wear increases with increase in nose radius. He further stated that large nose radius only have advantage of fine surface finish. Tool with large nose radius generate shallower white layer in new tool cutting. So in order to decide the tool life with large nose radius, white layer parameter should also be considered.
Panda et al. 3 observed that surface roughness tends to decrease significantly with increase in the cutting tool nose radius. The effect was mainly due to extremely less stress concentration and reasonable heat generation over a higher range of nose radius, rather than at lower nose radius. This allows the heat to dissipate more quickly reducing built-up temperature at the cutting edge and hence results in a better surface finish.

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Alper ?NCE et al. 4 conducted the experiment to investigate the effect of cutting tool parameter on surface roughness and reported that the relationship between nose radius and surface roughness is inversely proportional. Generally, increasing the nose radius decreases the surface roughness and improves the surface finish.

Surya and Atla5, 2015, suggested that there is an increase in the surface roughness with an increase in the approach angle. This effect is due to the increase in thickness of uncut ridge as the angle between the secondary cutting edge and the machined surface increases with an increase in approach angle.

El-Hossainy et al. 6 suggested that by increasing the approach angle the tool cutting length decreases leading to a lower surface finish.

Kumar et al. 7 reported that at lower approach angle, due to increase in the cutting edge which results in smaller chip thickness, surface roughness is low.

REFERENCES
1 S g, Dileepkumar. (2014). EFFECT OF TOOL NOSE RADIUS AND CUTTING PARAMETERS ON TOOL LIFE, SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN TURNING OF GREY CAST IRON. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST). 6. 69-75.

2 Kumar, Abhishek & Singh, Arun & Singari, Ranganath & Singh, R. (2014). Review of Effect of Tool Geometry Variation on Finish Turning and Improving Cutting Tool Life.

3 Panda, A., Das, S.R. & Dhupal, D. Process Integr Optim Sustain (2017) 1: 237. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41660-017-0019-94 Mehmet Alper ?NCE, ?lhan AS?LTÜRK, Effects of Cutting Tool Parameters on Surface Roughness, International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science (IRJES). ISSN (Online) 2319-183X, (Print) 2319-1821. Volume 4, Issue 8 (August 2015), PP.15-22.

5 Mulugundam Siva Surya, Sridhar Atla, Effect of Approach Angle in Face Milling Using Tungsten Carbide Tool, International Journal of Recent advances in Mechanical Engineering (IJMECH) Vol.4, No.2, May 2015.

6 M. El-Hossainy, T & Zoghby, Amine & Badr, Mervat & Maalawi, Karam & Nasr, Mohamed. (2010). Cutting Parameter Optimization when Machining Different Materials. Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 25. 1101-1114. 10.1080/10426914.2010.480998.
7 Kumar, S., Singh, D. & Kalsi, N.S. J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. C (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40032-017-0411-9
ecreased leading to lower surface roughness
by increasing the approach angle the tool cutting length
decreased leading to lower surface roughness
by increasing the approach angle the tool cutting length
decreased leading to lower surface roughness
by increasing the approach angle the tool cutting length
decreased leading to lower surface roughness
by increasing the approach angle the tool cutting length
decreased leading to lower surface roughness
by increasing the approach angle the tool cutting length
decreased leading to lower surface roughness
by increasing the approach angle the tool cutting length
decreased leading to lower surface roughness
by increasing the approach angle the tool cutting length
decreased leading to lower surface roughness
by increasing the approach angle the tool cutting length
decreased leading to lower surface roughness

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