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Chapter I
INTRODUCTION
Instructing in a remote network is an ordeal like no other. A few educators arrive and feel just as they have dependably been there; others think that it’s harder to settle in (Graham, 2014). When instructing in a remote school, you have the chance to take in more about your identity as an educator and as an individual, while having a positive and enduring effect to instructive results for remote understudies. The accomplishment as an instructor will to some extent be estimated by your ability to find out about the network setting of where you live, and the way of life and dialect of the nearby indigenous or non-indigenous individuals you will go meet. Creating profitable working associations with individuals from the network will upgrade your ability to work and live in a remote setting.
As the instructors fill in as instruments to teach understudies they were tested to pass on adapting, productively, as learning is a deep rooted process is a reality that can be acknowledged through various modes. It can be gotten in whatever an individual does and in wherever it goes.
Then again, in the field of instructing in remote zones, the instructors likewise require abilities that will fortify their showing aptitudes since educating in remote schools offer you a scope of individual openings. Numerous instructors who have partaken in remote encouraging administration say it is the feature of their vocations. There are more noteworthy chances to instruct multi-review, multi-matured gathering and, in numerous schools, you stay with that class for at least two years. A run of the mill arrangement to the remote instructing administration is for a long time. This is an incredible method to broaden your insight and aptitudes, and build up a superior comprehension of what it takes to be a pioneer in schools. Educating in remote school additionally offers a scope of expert open doors for instructors who are connecting with and flexible. On the off chance that you are adaptable and like filling in as a feature of a group you have the chance to be a piece of this inventive learning network.
Additionally, in remote schools have constrained chance to learn not at all like in urban places however at that point, training is imperative and it is the essential right that legislature should bear to their kin; each individual has a privilege to get to same nature of instruction in any case with their locale setting, regardless of whether it is in urban and country or remote regions in this way, everybody ought to draw in training. Wherein, this paper is about the remote school with limited access to instructor assets inborn incidental difficulties and abilities in teaching adolescents. As what Dr. Jim Watterton (2016) noted (Director General Department of Education, State of Queensland 2016). The difficulties looked by provincial and remote schools touch off an energy and assurance in all of us to adopt imaginative strategies to meeting understudy and network needs.
Moreover, the educators, understudies, network and different partners of a school were interrelated to give quality training. Since instructing in a remote school is a dedication, it is diligent work and the conditions can be testing. It enables the instructor to team up in the conveyance of creative training programs. It gives instructing and learning openings in regards to the capabilities that will challenge the instructor’s aptitudes while motivating and reinforcing his/her showing hones and furthermore they will be given a chance to educate intimately with some nearby indigenous network at whatever point there are.

Background of the Study
Instructing in a remote zone is a major test, the educator ought to have the outstanding fitness, eagerness and duty for giving the understudies an amazing training, proficient driven with the energy to have any kind of effect and furthermore enthusiastic about network commitment however successful instructional arranging isn’t the main ability that an instructor must have so as to be viewed as a specialist. Having an appropriate learning in teaching youth particularly in the understudies in a remote zone was very vital in light of the fact that they should manage what frame and setting of network that they were venture into.

However, it is very difficult to imagine a teacher experiencing high levels of learning for students if planning practices are ineffective. Learning how to plan for effective instruction is a critical part of the work performed daily by the teacher in a remote school area. As the researcher inspired to this study because he experienced on studying in a remote school because in rural/remote school districts often struggle to find professional development opportunities. That is why the researcher was interested for knowing the challenges and level of competencies of a teacher in remote areas on how this affects their teaching process.
With this the proponent was motivated to conduct a study that would find the factors that affects the assessed teachers’ level of competencies based on NCBTS set by the DepEd, after which upon knowing the result level of proponent determine interventions that could be implemented to further improve the teaching competencies that correlates the conditions of challenges of teaching in remote school areas.

Objectives of the Study
This research aimed to contribute for the enhancement of instruction in Remote School Areas regarding the competency and challenges that the teachers face in teaching in this school context.
Specifically, this paper sought to achieve the following objectives:
Determine the challenges of teachers in remote schools in terms of:
1.1. Physical challenges
1.1.1. Distant walking
1.1.2. Transportation service
1.2. Social challenges
1.2.1. Behavior
1.2.2. Culture
Assess the competencies of teachers in terms of:
Social regard for learning
Learning environment
Diversity of learners
Curriculum
Planning, assessing and reporting
Community linkages
Personal growth and professional development
Correlate between the challenges and competencies of teachers in remote areas.

Develop a competency-based primer
Significance of the Study
This study would be beneficial to the following:
Teachers. This research would be helpful for teachers to enhance their teaching process through the Input to Instructional Guide from what is studied about this research. They might know more about effectiveness and efficiency way and process of instruction to their students.

Students. This paper could be beneficial to students as they were the primary center for the Teaching and Learning process. The positive and better outcome of this research on challenges of teaching in remote school areas to enhance the teaching process that could also benefits the students for their learning process.

Administrators. Since, they serve as the supervisor and superior for working in school management. They would have a better satisfaction to the teachers in educating the students, as this paper is more beneficial first to the Teachers.

Community. They were one of the major stakeholders of a school. This research could include the community engagement focus on remote school planning. Supports school to bring together the resources of the whole community to expand quality learning opportunities.
Future Researchers. This study could help to be the reference for the future researchers. For those who have either the similar topic to study or improvisation of some point regarding for the researchers objectives.
Scope and Limitations
With regards to the Department of Education’s program in deployment of teachers in the remote areas; this research focused on the teachers’ competencies by NCBTS and challenges in teaching in a remote areas in selected remote schools in REINA (Real, Infanta, General Nakar, Quezon), on how the Teachers be able to deal with that conditions in their teaching profession.

There were fifty two teacher-respondents involved in the study that assessed by an Interview and the given modified questionnaire that the main focus is to determine the factors in challenges and competencies that may affect their teaching skills.

The time frame of this research was from January until May 2018.

The following terms are defined both conceptually and operationally to clarify the used terminologies for the easy understanding of the study:
Behavior pertains to the shown attitude of people around the community of remote area, specifically the students, parents, barangay officials, community sectors and colleagues.

Challenges define as the struggles of the teachers teaching in a remote community based on the physical and social challenges within the context.

Community Linkages pertains to the ideal that classroom activities are meaningfully linked to the experiences and aspirations of the learners in their homes and communities.
Competency refers to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the teachers in the NCBTS tool designed by Department of Education.

Correlate refers to relationship or connection, in which one thing affects or depends on another; each of two or more related or complimentary things. It also refers to the positive relationship between the teaching process and challenges on teaching in rural school.

Culture defines as the practices of the people in the remote area which was one of the challenges faced by the teacher in the said community context.
Curriculum is defined in the modern dimension as all the experiences for learning which are planned and organized by the school. As a domain, it refers to all elements of teaching and learning process that work on convergence to help students understand the curricular goals and objectives, and to attain high standards of learning defined in the curriculum. These elements include the teacher’s knowledge of subject matter and the learning process, teaching-learning approaches and activities, instructional materials and learning resources.

Distant Walking is an experience of a remote teacher that they usually faced, particularly in the place where the means transportation are very limited.
Diversity of Learners emphasizes the ideal that the teachers can facilitate the learning process even with diverse learners, by recognizing and respecting individual differences and by using knowledge about their differences to design diverse sets of learning activities to ensure that all learners can attain the desired learning goals.
Enthusiasm is an intense and eager enjoyment, interest or approval; feeling energetic in a particular subject. Also define as form of being persistent of a remote teacher that they possessed to teach dedicatedly to their students.

Extraneous means coming from the outside, also not mean relevant or essential. In this paper, it is also refers to extended opportunity on teaching even in rural areas in REINA.

Learning Environment focuses on the importance of providing a social psychological and physical environment within which all students, regardless of their individual differences in learning, can engage in the different learning activities and work towards attaining high standards of learning.
Learning Process pertains to learning is a result of experience. Since learning is an individual process, the instructor cannot do it for the students; a person’s knowledge is a result of experience. Thus, it is the process of extracting knowledge through the learning experiences of the students in selected remote schools by the help of remote teachers in their school district.

Planning, Assessing and Reporting, refers to the alignment of assessment and planning activities. In particular, the PAR focuses on the 1) use of assessment data and revises teaching-learning plans, 2) integration of assessment procedures in the plan and implementation of teaching-learning activities, and 3) reporting of the learner’s actual achievement and behavior.

Personal Growth and Professional Development emphasizes the ideal that teachers value having a high personal regard for the teaching profession, concern for professional development, and continuous improvement as teachers.

Professional Driven refers to approaches and strategies; working towards bringing in right kind of responsibility and accountability, ideal mix of teamwork. This is a possessed disposition and character of remote teacher that teach around in selected rural school in the research locale of this paper.
REINA an acronym in of the three towns: Real, Infanta and General Nakar, Quezon.

Remote School was identified by their small student population, and those with a wide range of grades. Somehow it relates to multi-grade classroom should be part of criteria; having a degree of difficulties in getting to school, traveling by road or water. This is also a place where the teacher-respondents were deployed, for the administration of questionnaire in data gathering procedure.

Social Context also known a milieu is how someone reacts to something depending on their immediate social or physical environment; can influence how someone perceives something; refers to social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops. As also form of challenges that the teachers were facing on this research with regards to the community involvement, teacher-parent relationships, barangay officials treatment, and colleagues approach to their co-colleagues in remote districts.

Social Regard for Learning focuses on the ideal that teachers serve as positive and powerful role models of the value in the pursuit of the different efforts to learn. The teacher’s action, statements and different types of social interactions with students exemplify this ideal.

Stakeholder is typically refers to anyone who is invested in the welfare and success of a school and its students, including administrators, teachers, staff members, students, parents, families, community members, local business leaders cultural institutions and others; it is also defined in this paper that stakeholders are the people or group of people in remote area they also help the researcher to guide him to get into the school location to conduct this study, especially the barangay tanod and officials that exert effort to lead the researcher going to the school
Superior means further above or higher position; higher rank, status or quality; refers to the administrator of a school which has the higher position in terms of supervising and facilitating around the school. Also, the principal of the remote schools who gave me a permission to step inside to their school in order to disseminate the questionnaires; to gather some qualitative data from the teacher-respondents.
5216195-582873Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the review of literature and studies which are closely related on the topic associated with the research problem. The topics presented below discusses about the education in remote school areas regarding the teaching competencies and challenges on teaching within this kind of school context. Several concepts and studies are from written unpublished theses and previous studies that have been found connected in this study.

Competency
In the 21st century educational standard, competencies are needed in educating learners. Somehow Filipino teachers often get mixed signals about what it means to be an effective teacher. Also it focused on developing learning HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skills). These HOTS are the demonstration of the learners’ critical thinking ability, and to go beyond the four walls of the classroom by applying their learning into the seven (7) domains identified by DepEd.
Education experts around the country, worked tirelessly together with numerous experts nationwide in order to identify the salient points or domains needed in line with the vision of transforming the Filipino Teacher into a globally competitive one. Along with the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), Teacher Education Institutes (TEIs), Philippine Regulatory Commission (PRC), Department of Education (DepEd) and the Civil Service Commission (CSC) in partnership with the different academic institutions, the National Competency-Based Teacher Standards (NCBTS) was born.

Another goal of this study is to assess the level of competency of secondary MAPEH teachers in remote areas using the domains of NCBTS. The said domains are divided into seven (7): 1) Social Regard for Learning (SRFL), 2) Learning Environment (LE), 3) Diversity of Learners (DOL), 4) Curriculum (Curr.), 5) Planning, Assessing and Reporting (PAR), 6) Personal Growth and Professional Development (PGPD).

Social Regard for Learning focuses on the ideal that teachers serve as positive and powerful role models of the values of the pursuit of learning and of the effort to learn, and that the teachers’ actions, statements, and different types of social interactions with students exemplify this ideal. CITATION htt l 1041 (http://saicebrian.wordpress.com/2009/07/05/national-competency-based-standards-ncbts/). It is therefore expected that the teacher who are done with this domain are teachers who have a deep and principled understanding of the learning processes and the role of the teacher in facilitating these processes and the role of the teacher in facilitating these processes in their students .

Learning Environment focuses on importance of providing for a social and physical environment within which all students, regardless of their individual differences in learning, can engage the different learning activities and work towards attaining high standards of learning CITATION htt1 l 1041 (http://www.tllg.unisa.edu_guide/gllt_ch3_sec5.pdf). Hence, the teacher must have a deep and principled understanding of how educational processes relate to larger historical, social, cultural and political processes.
Diversity of Learners emphasizes the ideal that teachers can facilitate the learning process in diverse types of learners, by first recognizing and respecting individual differences, then using knowledge about students’ differences to design diverse sets of learning activities to ensure that all students can attain appropriate learning goals. Therefore, students are expected to determine, understand and accept the learners’ diverse background knowledge and experienceCITATION htt2 l 1041 (http://www.highlandschoolsvirtualib.org.uk/llt/inclusive_enjoyable/environment.html).
Curriculum, a domain that refers to all elements of the teaching-learning process that work in convergence to help students attain high standards of learning and understanding of the curricular goals and objectives. These elements include the teacher’s knowledge of subject matter, teaching-learning approaches and activities, instructional materials and learning resources CITATION htt3 l 1041 (http://en.guide.teacher.curriculum.pdf). Thus, students are expected to have the basic higher level literacy, communication, numeracy, critical thinking, Communicates clear learning goals that are appropriate for learners, makes good use of allotted instructional time, selects teaching methods, learning activities and instructional materials or resources appropriate to learners and aligned to the objectives of the lesson.

Planning, Assessing and Reporting, a domain of Planning, Assessing and Reporting refers to the aligned use of assessment and planning activities to ensure that the teaching-learning activities are maximally appropriate to the students’ current knowledge and learning levels. In particular, the domain focuses on the use of assessment data to plan and revise teaching-learning plans, as well as the integration of formative assessment procedures in the plan and implementation of teaching-learning activities CITATION htt4 l 1041 (http://www.earlyyears.sa.edu.au/pages/HOME/Plan_Assess_Report/?reflag=1). In this domain the students are expected to have direct experience in classroom like teaching assistance, classroom observation and practice teaching. They would also become creative and innovative in thinking of alternative teaching approaches, and evaluate the effectiveness of such approaches in improving student learning
Community Linkages focuses on the ideal that school activities are meaningfully linked to the experiences and aspirations of the students in their homes and communities. Thus the domain focuses on teachers’ efforts directed at strengthening the links between school and community activities, particularly as these links help in the attainment of the curricular objectives CITATION htt5 l 1041 (http://www.nuepa.org/Download/Concept%20Paper.pdf). After this domain, students can reflect on the relationships among the teacher process skills, the learning process in the students, the nature of the content and the broader social forces encumbering the school and educational processes in order to constantly improve their teaching knowledge, skills and practices.

Personal Growth and Professional Development emphasizes the ideal that teachers value having a high personal regard, concern for professional development, and continuous improvement as teachers. Students after completing this domain can be able to demonstrate and practice the professional and ethical requirements of the teaching profession and are willing and capable to continue learning in order to better fulfill their mission CITATION htt6 l 1041 (http://saicebrian.wordpress.com/2009/07/05/national-competency-based-teacher-standards-ncbts/)Remote Schools
Eventually, the specialized meaning of a remote school compares to our general comprehension of provincial zones; they are described by geographic disengagement and little populace estimate. All schools are ordered into four districts by their size, populace thickness and area. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) characterizes these districts by the school’s vicinity to a city a “urban-driven” order framework. The four area classes utilized by the NCES’ urban driven order framework are city, suburb, town and provincial. Provincial schools are then separated into three subcategories in light of the Census Bureau External’s meanings of urban city. Provincial schools are likewise all delegated high need schools (Bailey, J., and Preston, K., 2016).
(Ballou, 2008) Teaching in rustic schools, starting at 2008, the National Center for Education Statistics detailed an expected 7,757 provincial school regions the nation over, with around 11.3 million understudies enlisted in essential or auxiliary country schools. (Lockheed, Marlaine E., Adriaan M. Verspoor, 2009) The NCES offers a table of the rates of open essential and auxiliary schools with showing opportunities in various subjects. The table shows high rates of employment opening in country schools in subjects extending from a custom curriculum to professional training. Moreover, after the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, schools were met with new prerequisites and benchmarks to expand the nature of training. The demonstration expected states to, among other instructive changes, ensure that each educator is qualified in their branch of knowledge. All center classes (Science, History, Math, English, and so forth.) are required to be instructed by qualified educators. Capabilities involve the vital degrees and confirmations for instructors ordered by the Department of Education, and for rustic schools, this request demonstrates troublesome and furthermore instructing in a remote region may likewise posture different challenges for educators.
Country schools confront challenges in drawing in and holding educators and directors, constrained monetary assets and issues with long-remove transportation. Be that as it may, a portion of these troubles are being tended to. However, at that point, as per Beesley (2010), wherever you instruct, going into this calling requires ability, devotion, diligence and a longing to have any kind of effect that rises above regions. Instructing isn’t generally simple, yet it requires energy, and in case you’re not kidding about instructing, you have an enthusiasm for training that can face these challenges. (Cuervo, 2008) Everybody needs an instruction, and numerous instructors locate the most fulfilment and delight in educating the understudies who don’t have such simple access to the advantages of training.
In view of the outside examination about instructing in remote schools, Beeson and Strange (2012), they said that in a large portion of the nations on the planet, the state of training in remote and detached region has been ominous. Much of the time, school structures and gear are outdated and movement conditions are at an impeded. More qualified instructors like to work in urban regions; while the educators who remain in such zones are secluded. Little schools need to receive multi-review educating. Notwithstanding the contemplations of Beeson and Strange, issues getting to the schools, the nature of training offered in such schools couldn’t to be contrasted with that in urban regions. In Japan, the administration and instructors began a national responsibility enhancing the sub-par condition of training in remote and disconnected regions (Saito, 2009).
There are outside examinations with respect to instructing in country locale and they incorporate “The Law for the Promotion of Education in Remote and Isolated Areas” and it was authorized. Under this particular law, some compensatory measures were acquainted with advance instruction in such zones, and a genuine exertion has been supported to decrease the differences in training amongst segregated and non-disconnected zones (J., 2009). Since the Promotion Law was sanctioned after the satisfaction of all inclusive essential and junior optional instruction, its targets were mainly gone for enhancing the quality or instructive standard of those schools.

The Promotion Law characterizes the schools in remote and disengaged zones as “those open essential and junior-optional schools that are situated in rocky zones, remote islands or other comparative regions which are seriously served by correspondences and where the normal, monetary or social conditions are horrible.” In agreement with endorsed criteria that are given in the law, pertinent schools are assigned as “schools in remote and segregated regions.” Designated schools are dealt with as objects of uncommon positive measures (Yamaguchi, 2010).
There are numerous remote schools in all aspects of the Philippines, however not the greater part of the general population can recognize the qualities and depiction of a remote school. As indicated by Zenhekiren (2011), a columnist and a teacher in Nagasaki, Japan, the criteria to ascertain the level of remoteness of the schools were set up as takes after.
Hilly zone adaptation: remove from a prepare station or a transport stop, separate from a medicinal establishment, remove from a senior secondary school, separate from a mail station, and separation from the workplace of the nearby leading group of training. While in Island variant: separate from the primary land, recurrence of month to month planned administration of the ship, and separation from a harbor. While (Morgan, J., Atkin, C., Adedeji, S.O. furthermore, Sieve A, 2014), portrayed the remote school they contemplated that there are attributes of a provincial territories encased their measurement of each trademark.
In statistic trademark, de?ning provincial in statistic terms delineates it as a goal, numerical, physical trait of a place or a populace, alluding just to where individuals live-not their identity or what they do, inadequate populaces, either in the little aggregate number of individuals who live there or in their low thickness (i.e., proportion of individuals to accessible space), geologically disconnected, physically expelled from other populace territories and from major urban focuses, situated outside the political limits of a urban region (Cranton, 2010). The issue isn’t populace size or thickness, yet area with respect to of?cial urban limit assignments. A zone may have few individuals yet not be viewed as rustic, since it is inside urban or metropolitan limits.
While in monetary trademark refered to by Seive (2009), described that the financial significance suggests how the general population in the region bring home the bacon, there is a solitary basic industry inside the network in which most occupants are locked in, bringing about a basic division of work and a low level of monetary specialization, provincial as a financial classi?cation likewise might be de?ned by the useful straightforwardness of a zone. It suggests an absence of assortment in the manners in which individuals bring home the bacon and a low level of useful separation in the network’s social structure, and it doesn’t generally mean a place where individuals have a tendency to “live off the land” (i.e., are near nature) and depend specifically on the abuse of normal assets.
(Blandford, 2011) Social structure, another regular significance of provincial is gotten from its social structure. This thought re?ects the unmistakable character of social life and social request in country networks, it takes a gander at the characteristics of provincial life in term of closeness, casualness, and homogeneity, by righteousness of the littler quantities of individuals in rustic settings, social associations are more prompt (up close and personal), more extreme or essential (frequently in view of connection ties), and more entire (in light of information of individual memoirs as opposed to formal part positions), due to the more noteworthy nature, rustic social request is kept up through casual systems of social control (in light of family relationship and individual colleague) instead of through formal components and lawful organizations.

Challenges of Teachers
Instructing in any sort of school will confront a conceivable difficulty with regards to the circumstance, the amount progressively if the school locale that you’ll going to teach is in a country or a remote area. Managing the difficulties in instructing with that sort of school setting was extremely very difficult so Mr. Michael R. Montgomery, Ed.D. (2010), recognized the potential difficulties, there are fifth high schooler challenges were distinguished. The difficulties positioned arranged by most difficult to slightest testing were as per the following: school funds, understudy enlistment, contracting and holding showing staff, understudy evaluation, responsibility school execution, additional curricular exercises, transportation administrations, instructional projects, instructional help benefits, employing and holding authoritative staff, building and grounds, procuring and holding non-confirmed staff, nourishment administrations, family support, and network bolster.
The difficulties that the school confronted have a major factor that influences the instruction inside that specific remote spots. It likewise influences the instructional method and the educating procedure. In this manner, if the said distinguished difficulties were some way or another negative it might prompts a poor instructive result for each understudy and likewise, those difficulties will fills in as the reason for its inventive arrangements wherein the instructive status in each provincial and remote school can update if there would be conceivable arrangement on how the learning openings, and encouraging procedure won’t be a generally influenced by the recognized difficulties.
As per Gottelmann-Duret and Hogan, (2010-2013), the instructors’ confronted challenges in remote territories are first, poor educators’ status; educating is a standout amongst the most underestimated callings and governments’ consideration and response to instructors request are extremely unbending. Instructors are not especially generously compensated, and it has turned into an occupation that you just do on the off chance that you couldn’t land another position. (Canadian Council on Learning, 2012) The poor compensation of educators, when contrasted and their partners who are occupied with different callings with practically identical level of training and experience, is one of the difficulties instructors need to adapt to over the nations. For example, low instructor compensation, and the manner by which it is paid, had been reserve to be the most petulant issue among educators in numerous schools for a considerable length of time. Despite low educator inspiration, yearly weakening is accounted for to be negligible generally in light of the fact that elective work openings are restricted. The postponements endured in the organization of installment of instructors’ pay rates can now and then reach out up to three months.
(DeYoung, 2010) These are a portion of the explanations behind the lateness and reduction in motivational levels among educators and have ampli?ed levels of edginess and dissatisfaction, bringing about fantastically low quality of training. At times, state organizations do have the cash to pay, however sit on it perpetually and the educators need to sit tight for their pay rates, and frequently their annuities are not paid when they resign. Educators are continually searching for conceivable outcomes to gain a minimal expenditure somewhere else, and on the off chance that they can ?nd another activity, they quit instructing. And furthermore, the test the looked by the remote instructor is by and large disregard of educators in country schools; the issue confronting instructors in provincial schools has been tireless disregard. Legislators and expert instructors have concentrated on urban training, leaving numerous to expect that everything is great in the schools in rustic regions.
Ultimately, a remote report demonstrates that the absence of quali?ed instructors in rustic schools; the de?nition of quali?ed educators changes from nation to nation, contingent upon the certi?cation strategy in the separate African nations. (Bassey, 2007)In Nigeria, for instance, the base encouraging quali?cation used to be a Grade II showing certi?cate for elementary schools and National Certi?cate of Education (NCE) for junior optional schools. The 2004 National Policy on Education (NPE), be that as it may, ?xed the base certi?cate for instructors to be NCE. There is almost certainly that numerous nations confront difficulties of educators’ quali?cation and supply. In the meantime, in any case, there are similarly genuine difficulties of their arrangement. In numerous nations, urban regions have quali?ed educators who are jobless or underemployed while provincial territories have un?lled posts (Educational Research Service, 2009). As associated with this, the example of concurrent surplus and deficiency, as announced by (Maulkeen, 2010) is solid confirmation that the issue of instructors in country schools won’t be settled just by delivering more educators. By and large, the absence of quali?ed educators in numerous rustic schools is essentially on the grounds that numerous instructors would prefer not to remain in country territories because of social, proficient and social separation. While (Castle, 2009) re?ecting on educators’ hesitance to work or remain in country zones, contends that low pay rates, absence of access to proficient openings, and the duty to go up against different obligations are the significant difficulties standing up to instructors and influence their choices to work or remain in rustic zones.

Physical Challenges
In the remote school documentation by the Bulalat Journalism in the Philippines, students and teachers in remote interior villages in Samar province walk at least 10 kilometers to reach remote, upland schools, all for the sake of pursuing education. CITATION Apr l 1041 (Ohan, 2010), the author had an interview from a student who will enter college in their place at Samar, Leyte. The student said that the school is accessible by boat, but she had no money to pay for the boat fare. She would usually arrive home late in the evening because of the distance she had to cover. There were also times she went hungry, having no lunch to bring to school.
The student he interviewed observed many shortcomings in the school. The 12 teachers for 300 to 400 students were not enough. Most of the teachers were municipal-paid and had not even passed the teachers’ board exam. Because of the shortage of teachers, an instructor would usually teach three to four subjects even if it is not his field of specialization. Assessing her high school life, Cherrie said she could have learned more if the government gave priority to education, particularly on schools in the interior villages. Qualified and well-compensated teacher, updated books, as well as other facilities like computers and laboratory equipment are needed.
It is also from the said documentation of Arponjheinn OhanCITATION Apr
l 1041 (2010) , that deals with the physical challenges of teachers regarding to the accessibility of vehicles or the transportation services going to the school. In their context, there are eight teachers for grades one to six, with an average student population of 300. CITATION And09 l 1041 (Anderson, 2009) The main mode of transpor tation to the town proper is the motorized banca. There is now a road passable by a vehicle but there are no public vehicles plying the route, other than what is called the “habal-habal” (motorcycle). 
A habal-habal ride costs P50 to P100 depending on the number of passengers and condition of the road. Mr. Wilfredo Tayag is the lone teacher at the upland farming village of Canlobo in Pinabacdao town. He walks twice a week to the Canlobo Primary School (CPS), which is 17 kilometers from the nearest road that is accessible to vehicles. The distance is not easy to cover for the polio-stricken teacher and who needs a cane to walk. CPS is a one-room school with an average of 35 students for grades one and two. A large number of students drop out by the end of the school year, with only 10 students often remaining. Many would also usually be absent during harvest and planting seasons because they have to help their parents in the farm.
However, the challenges that found in that kind of area was quiet difficult for student’s learning and the teaching process of the teachers. There are some particular schools that accessible only by crossing a river using a banca and habal-habal riding for the mountainous context of the school. It is similar to the status of some school in the locale of this research at Real, Infanta and General Nakar, Quezon. Some of the teachers were riding habal-habal for have the access going to school; some were giving their time to walk in a long period of time because the access going to school is very difficult for teachers and students. Thus, the government and some institution giving their attention and sympathy to fulfill the remote school areas necessity as much as they can, and to enhance and upgrade the educational status among rural and remote school enclosed the innovation of curriculum in educational system of our country, Philippines.
Social Challenges
There are (3) social trademark distinguished by Hoover (2009), this part of the basic importance of rustic alludes to particular arrangements of states of mind, convictions, values, information frameworks, and practices that describe the lives of individuals in country regions, this additionally pictures rustic as customary, ease back to change, commonplace, and fatalistic, provincial culture has likewise been portrayed as generally bigoted of decent variety and unaccepting of pariahs, to put it plainly, provincial is a perspective, a mindset that is not quite the same as that basic among urban tenants, seeing provincial as a social wonder that goes past geographic or statistic conditions has much instinctive interest. This is communicated in the normal intelligence that “You can remove the kid from the nation however you cannot remove the nation from the kid.”
It is generally evident that every one of the schools has a school culture concentrated on exclusive standards for understudies. This perception mirrors the general and long-held understanding that school culture is a critical school-level factor that impacts understudy results. Discoveries from a longitudinal investigation of grade school understudies’ proficiency and numeracy abilities affirm that ‘building up a school culture in which understudies feel included and bolstered to learn are key parts of shutting the hole in instructive accomplishment for understudies (Acer, 2015).
Writing with regards to optional tutoring, refer to look into in Australia and abroad that focuses to some wide techniques appeared to be powerful to increase commitment, accomplishment and school finish among understudies. One of these systems incorporates “building a school culture that recognizes and backings understudies and families”. While recognizing, including and supporting indicated in the examination that I have refered to are key parts of the eleven school societies, for each situation they are viewed as basically vital supporters of accomplishing a mutual vision for the school and network (Helme and Lamb, 2013).
In addition, with regards to social difficulties of educating in remote region, the instructors were managing alteration with the network culture and understudies’ conduct that has a major factor on how the educator will convey the learning inside that sort of school setting and network setting. All the more particularly, (Nachtigal, P. M., 2012) the regular activities saw in the way of life of schools included: assembling some concurred center convictions about understudies and getting the hang of, creating shared vision or reason explanations that depict exclusive standards results for understudies, setting up concurred school standards in light of positive connections among all associated with understudy picking up, taking a key introduction to class arranging and basic leadership, seeking after an engaged change plan, growing entire school systems for educating and conduct that both guide hone and give, inward responsibility forms; outlining authoritative procedures to accomplish the school’s vision for its understudies; making a positive and inviting condition; and building working associations with different organizations.

Conceptual Framework
The concept of this study much credence from Borabo CITATION Bor09
l 1041 (2009), who stated that NCBTS draws from many existing positive expressions of good teaching found in the Philippine experience. He also stated that NCBTS is not new. The qualities of good teaching are unified under a teaching paradigm. The National Competency-Based Teacher Standards is the proposed common framework for all teaching and teacher development programs in the Philippine formal education sector.
In the same manner just like any other endeavor, teaching needs competencies that will enable the teachers to carry out their responsibilities as molders of the youth. These competencies are the baselines to provide students the necessary learning that will make them better persons. In this very modern day setting of education teachers should not isolate themselves with the present competencies they have they should be able to update these competencies to reach the gap between the students need and the knowledge that teachers can give.
No two communities are the same and once you arrive, you will continue to learn more about specific local knowledge and cultural practices from those around you CITATION Rem16 l 1041 (Remote educator, Northern Territory, 2016). Remote communities have much of the essential infrastructure of a small town with most communities having a community store, health clinic, school, arts center and workshop. The majority of residents will be local Indigenous people with deep connections to the country on which the community is established. The number of people living and working there will depend on the size and a service need of the community living remotely has its own rhythm, pace and feel. Obligations and responsibilities to people, places and cultural events can influence the day-to-day activities and functioning within the community. At a school you may find that student population varies depending on cultural events and obligations within and beyond the community; remembering that these events are beyond the teachers’ control assists to be prepared and flexible for change within the classroom. Moreover, in this new era of the Philippine educational setting, the DepEd never tires to uncover ways as to how they may be able to address such issue and formulate programs that would enable teachers to discover what is missing in their competencies.

On the next page, the IPO Model on the Determine the Challenges and Assessment of the Level of Competence of the Secondary MAPEH Teachers in Remote School Areas. The paradigm presents the concerns of this study. The physical challenges in terms of distant walking and transportation services, the social challenges in terms of behavior and culture together with the NCBTS seven (7) domain by the Department of Education which has (1) Social Regard for Learning, (2) Learning Environment, (3) Diversity of Learners, (4) Curriculum, (5) Planning, Assessing, and Reporting,(6) Community Linkage and (7) Personal Growth and Professional Development.
The process of this study is determining the challenges and assessing the level of competence of the teacher respondents and analysis of significant relationship between the challenges and competencies. For the output, a competency-based primer was developed.

Research Paradigm
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Figure 1. The IPO Model on the Determine the Challenges and Assessment of the Level of Competence of the Secondary MAPEH Teachers in Remote School Areas
5227955-488315Chapter III
METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the method used by the researcher on conducting. This includes the locale of the study, respondents, research design, research instrumentation, data gathering procedure, and the statistical treatment.
Research Locale
The data and information that the researcher gathered in this study was conducted in selected schools in remote areas in Real (Ungos National High School – Lubayat Extension, Malapad Elementary School and Tanauan Elementary School), Infanta (Langgas National High School, Agos-agos Elementary School, Lual Elementary School, Picab Elementary School, Miyunod Elementary School, Cacawayan Elementary School, Magsaysay Elementary School and Tudturan Elementary School) and General Nakar (Batangan National High School, Paaralang Sekundarya ng Heneral Nakar, Anoling Elementary School) province of Quezon. REINA (Real, Infanta and General Nakar), this locale was selected because as it has neighboring mountainous places which has determined remote schools in some particular places and it is more accessible to conduct because the researcher is residing at Infanta, Quezon nearby the other place where there are many remote schools.
Respondents
The researcher gathered data from fifty two (52) teacher-respondents in the field of teaching in remote school areas. They were chosen purposively since the study was only addressed to the teachers in remote areas.

Research Design
This study focused more on assessing the competencies and identifying the challenges in terms of physical and social challenges on teaching in remote areas. The descriptive research design was used by the researcher in gathering the necessary information and data. The data were collected through the checklist type of instrumentation. For more additional and support data of this study, the researcher was also make an interview to his teacher-respondents.

Research Instrumentation
The primary sources of data gathered through the checklist type of instrument. The researcher used a checklist that enclosed the assessment of competencies of secondary MAPEH teachers and possible situational and potential challenges based on the physical and social challenges, through the teaching process of the teachers in remote school areas. In addition, that type of instrument used by the researcher is to emphasize the main purpose and objective of this study.
The researcher consulted four (4) teachers from the College of Teacher Education in Southern Luzon State University – Lucban, Quezon, for the validation of the instrument that the researcher used for data gathering of his study. But before the checklist was totally used for research conducting, the researcher make a revision of the his instrumentation because one of the validator suggested to exclude the demographic profile to fill-in in the questionnaire because as he said that it is not important to include the demographic profile of the teacher-respondents as the study were only sought to assess the competencies and challenges of teaching in remote areas. Also, he said that I need to revise specifically the “Checklist II” of the researcher’s instrumentation, the validator noted that the Checklist II does not matched and does not answer the first (I) objectives and its parameters, the researcher followed what the validator instructed.
Data Gathering Procedure
The researcher made a letter that aiming for the permission to conduct this study in different remote school areas in his research locales. It was signed by the researcher, noted by the research adviser and approved by the department dean.
The researcher went first to give the validated checklist for the teacher-respondents in remote school areas at Infanta, Quezon. Using this form of instrumentation, the researcher needs to schedule the date and time systematically because there are some remote schools which is very distant from the town proper.

The following scheduled date of interview was held in remote schools of Real and General Nakar, Quezon. Furthermore, the researcher make an insight from the observed social context in those remote schools that causes for teachers’ faced challenges and factors in their teaching process, with the inclusion of distance of school from the town proper, accessibility for the vehicles, school setup/context, culture and behavior in that particular remote place and others. It can serve for the additional gathered data.
Moreover, the administration of questionnaire is done by knowing and communicating the remote teachers if they were available as to be the respondents of this research, every time when there was a respond, the researcher systematically scheduled the available days to go to the school where the teachers located for conducting of his study. Also, the researcher came to the house of other remote teacher-respondents but firstly, by asking for their permission with all due respect for them to conduct this study with the cooperation of the teacher-respondents.

Statistical Treatment
To attain the objective that are posed in this study the statistical tools that applied in this study in gathering data are the following:
In determining the competencies and challenges of secondary teachers in remote areas the researcher used the weighted mean,
WM= 4f+3f+2f+fnWhere: WM = weighted mean
f =frequency
n = total number of respondents
For the interpretation and analysis of the data, the following descriptions were utilized.

Used for assessing the level of Competence,
Scale Range Descriptive Rating
4 3.25-4.00 Always Practice (AP)
3 2.50-3.24 Sometimes Practice (SP)
2 1.50-2.49 Rarely Practice (RP)
1 1.00-1.74 Not Practice (NP)
Used for determining the Challenges,
Scale Range Descriptive Rating
4 3.25-4.00 Strongly Agree (SA)
3 2.50-3.24 Agree (A)
2 1.50-2.49 Disagree (D)
1 1.00-1.74 Strongly Disagree (SD)
And Pearson’s coefficient r to determine the significant relationship between competencies and challenges,
r=N?xy (?x)(?y)N?x2-?x2 (N?y2-?y)2Where: N is equal to the number of pairs of score
5227955-560070Chapter IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data gathered through the research instrument.

Determine the challenges of teachers in remote schools in terms of:
Table 1
Weighted Mean Distribution of Physical Challenge of Secondary Teachers in
Remote Areas: Distant Walking
Statements WM DR
1. I experienced to cross river/s in order to go to school. 2.98 A
2. I walk in a rough-road whenever I am going to school. 3.35 SA
3. I am challenged by stiff and mountainous way going to school. 3.06 A
4. I always feel tiredness in walking along the way whenever I go to school. 2.96 A
5. I spend a lot of time for walking going to school that brings me tiredness and fatigue that affects my teaching strategies. 2.90 A
AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN 3.05 A

The table indicates the general average weighted mean of 3.05 with “Agree” descriptive rating; it also shows that the teacher respondents experienced to cross rivers, challenged by the mountainous way; they felt tiredness and spending a lot of time on going to the school as we can notice to the table above that there are verbal descriptions of “Agree” for above mentions challenges. Moreover, the only descriptive rating with an average weighted mean of 3.35 is the challenge of walking in a rough-road whenever the teachers are going to school.

Likewise, some educator respondents truly confronting the sloping setting heading off to the school were found; they have to apply much exertion with a specific end goal to go in school, battling those circumstance can really influences their showing procedure, as they gave their quality and devotion just to teach the understudies in the remote zones where they were conveyed.
To confirm this, as per Khalil (2013), he presumed that separations appear to increment in the last neighborhood bringing about reducing the quantity of understudies willing to walk their remote school and the instructors who are living far from the school region that investing their opportunity for strolling additionally leads for declining their vitality and commitment to educate beneficially, influencing by the separation of the school.

Table 2
Weighted Mean Distribution of Physical Challenge of Secondary Teachers in
Remote Areas: Transportation Services
Statements WM DR
1. I notice that the vehicles going to our school district has limited routes. 2.98 A
2. I doubt to the passenger vehicles going to school will insure my safety. 2.62 A
3. I ride in a Habal-habal which is the only means of transportation going to our school. 2.13 D
4. I prefer to have a personal transportation service that will be used in order to go to school. 2.96 A
5. I am affected by the transportation service going to school that turn to lowers my physical performance in teaching. 3.06 A
AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN 2.75 A
On this table, the “transportation services” challenge under by physical challenges, shows that there has an average weighted mean of 2.75 and “Agree” DR. The table also shows that there is only one descriptive rating of “Disagree” which says that Habal-habal is not the only means of transportation going to their schools; somehow it is one of the primary means of their transportation but vehicles like, tricycle, bancas, and jeepney are also their means of transportation going to the school where it is located.

Moreover, it can see on the table that the teachers have doubts with regards on their safety from passenger vehicles (2.62 WM) because of the mountainous context that they were facing going to school, the teacher-respondents noticed that the vehicles going to their school has limited routes (2.98 WM), also they were agreed on having personal transportation service going to their school (2.96 WM) and having a highest WM mean of 3.06 as “Agree” descriptive rating implicates that the teachers’ physical performance lowers by effect of the transportation services because of the distance where the school is located, the availability of vehicles and also the effect on the proceeding table which the physical challenges in distant walking.

To help this, it was accounted for by Muhia (2015), that the most widely recognized methods for transport by educators who live long separations from schools is strolling, cycling, and different vehicles that can use for a firm setting of route going to class, similar to cruiser vehicles. He additionally expressed that the street foundation in most rustic region is very poor with couple of vehicles utilizing these courses. To top this, the abnormal state of destitution was said to constrain consumption on transport. Instructors get the chance to class exceptionally worn out from strolling or getting in school by accessible transportation benefits and are excessively exhausted, making it impossible to educate.

On the succeeding table, the AWM is 2.92, which indicates the verbal description “Agree”, it signifies that all of the challenges under Social Challenges in terms of behavior affects their teaching as also indicates such challenges of being affected by students misbehavior, being discouraged by poor parent involvement, less support of community for attaining learning goals, and affected by misjudgment from their colleagues.

Table 3
Weighted Mean Distribution of Social Challenge of Secondary Teachers in
Remote Areas: Behavior
Statements WM DR
1. I am affected to the showed misbehavior of my students that affect my mood in teaching. 3.06 A
2. I am discouraged by the poor connections and relationship with my students’ parents. 3.02 A
3. I am affected to the barangay officials who are not completely aware in helping and supporting our school’s needs. 2.94 A
4. I notice that the community does not give our school a total support to attain learning goals of our students. 2.94 A
5. I am facing misjudgment from my colleagues about my teaching performance affecting my engagement to teach productively. 2.62 A
AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN 2.92 A
As Ingvarson CITATION Ing10
l 1041 (2010) cited, a further feature of teacher development models is that, “external support personnel have a significant impact on the receptivity to new ideas and the use of Information” It is important that external agents should be engaged at various stages of teacher development.
Thus, the contribution of teachers working together to solve problems and deal with school specific issues can be complemented by the role of external agents or stakeholders like family, community and officials that also acting facilitators. Teachers are able to process and synthesize information and ideas received from outside in order to make an appropriate school-based response. This could be more beneficial for students because if there is a good relationship between the teachers and other personnel who were responsible as stakeholders, the teacher will be more dedicated, engaged and perceiver to teach productively.

Table 4
Weighted Mean Distribution of Social Challenge of Secondary Teachers in
Remote Areas: Culture
Statements WM DR
1. I am challenged to embrace the traditions of the community. 3.08 A
2. I do not mind the belief and customs of my students in our school district. 2.3 D
3. I have a hard time adjusting to the culture of the community where the school is located. 2.5 A
4. I teach with multi-aged student that affect my different approaches in my teaching. 2.83 A
5. I am dealing with the students who are not aware nor exposed on using technology because of remoteness of the community where they live. 3.02 A
AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN 2.73 A
It can show on the preceding table that the Social Challenges in terms of Culture has average weighted mean of 2.73 with the verbal description of “Agree”, it indicates that almost of the list challenges in the table is “Agree”, the teacher affected by the traditions of the community, they have hard time adjusting to the culture, they teach with multi-aged students that affect their different approaches in their teaching and also they were dealing with the students who are not aware nor exposed on using technology. One statement has verbal description “Disagree” and AWM of 2.30, it means that regardless of being affected of such factors they consider their students.

According to Thomburg CITATION Tho10
l 1041 (2010), that living in a remote community and being surrounded by another culture will actually reveal just as much to you about your own culture as it does to you about the different culture that you will be exposed to. Areas of knowledge that are essential for teachers to acquire include the cultural, social, economic, religious background of students and the ways in which this may impact on the school from time to time.
As it can be reflect that to move and to teach beyond the practical and develop a deeper understanding of the context where you will teach, it is important to research the community prior to your arrival. Information about history, community members, and culture will assist in building the teachers’ readiness to work in a remote community.

Assess the competencies of teachers in terms of:
On the succeeding table all of the indicators obtain “Always Practiced” verbal description which accounted for 3.57 average weighted mean and particularly always practiced by the teacher-respondents in all the statements in the table 1 from different strands under by the first domain which is Social Regard for Learning (SRFL); first strand is about “Teacher’s actions demonstrate value for learning” while the second strand is “Demonstrates that learning is of different kinds and from different sources.” Meaning the quantitative data manifest that the MAPEH teachers in remote school areas are sensitive to the feelings of their learner so why they are also sensitive and careful for showing their own behaviors. Moreover, as written from the article written by Spencer CITATION Spe13
l 1041 (2013), teachers and students are “social beings” who interpret the world through expressing by their own cultural and social perceptions.
It is important to know the learners’ geography or their location, their biography for the totality of their life experiences in their cultural life-world, their interactions their motivations, their opportunities to participate and learn their aspiration and so on, that influence how, what, why they learn. It simply signifies that the teacher need to understand their learners as diverse, individual, social and cultural beings, who bring this diversity to the learning process – not just cognitive diversity but social, cultural and linguistic diversity.

Table 5
Weighted Mean Distribution of Level of Competence of Secondary Teachers in Remote Areas
in the NCBTS Domain 1: Social Regard for Learning
Statements WM DR
1. I make an action that serves as motivation for students learning process. 3.71 AP
2. I make different types of social interactions with students exemplify this ideal. 3.40 AP
3. I can see that my students can appreciate and model the value of learning through my interactions with them. 3.62 AP
4. I practice positive and powerful role models of the values of the pursuit of learning and effort to learn. 3.54 AP
5. I make sure that my students see actions and statements from me that indicate that learning and exerting effort to learn are important. 3.5 AP
6. I see to it that my students sometimes see my actions and statements that show the value of learning and exerting effort to learn. 3.42 AP
7. I see to it that my students always see my actions and statements that show the importance of learning and exerting effort to learn. 3.56 AP
8. I make sure that my students see and appreciate the value of pursuing learning by looking at my various actions and statements in the classroom. 3.63 AP
9. I demonstrate and exemplify the values of learning and efforts in the various actions and statements I make in front of my students 3.67 AP
10. I make sure that my students see and appreciate the value of exerting effort to learning by looking at my various actions and statements in the classroom. 3.56 AP
AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN 3.57 AP
Table 6
Weighted Mean Distribution of Level of Competence of Secondary Teachers in Remote Areas
in the NCBTS Domain 2: Learning Environment
Statements WM DR
1. I see to it that my students feel and understand that I want them all to attain high levels of learning. 3.38 AP
2. I make sure that the physical environment in my classroom is safe under the general conditions of our school. 3.12 SP
3. I provide all my students with timely, appropriate, and consistent feedback on their learning behaviors. 3.22 SP
4. I respond to learning and behavior problems quickly, appropriately, respectfully, and consistently. 3.50 AP
5. I assure that there are ways of improving the physical environment in my classroom that are within my means as a teacher. 3.24 SP
6. I make all my students feel that their individual strengths and resources are recognized and appreciated in class. 3.54 AP
7. I make sure that the physical environment in my classroom was conducive to learning under the general conditions of our school. 3.46 AP
8. I provide diverse opportunities for the different students in my class to nurture their desire and aspirations for high levels of learning. 3.56 AP
9. I assure that all my students feel respected in my class, regardless of their gender, ability, religion, socio-economic background, ethnicity, and other physical and social characteristics. 3.60 AP
10. I create a social climate and organization in the classroom where all my students can effectively engage the learning activities, regardless of their diverse capacities and resources as individual learners. 3.60 AP
AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN 3.42 AP
An average weighted mean of 3.42 is computed with a qualitative description “Always Practiced” such is also prevailing on the statements on the table which entail teacher possesses the high level of competence with regards to this domain because obviously, the weighted mean of all the statements are just only within ‘Sometimes Practiced’ and ‘Always Practiced’ verbal description.
Furthermore, (DepEd, 2009), under the second space of NCBTS, which is the Learning Environment, it has four noteworthy stands, first is “Makes a situation that advances decency”, demonstrates that the educator make a physical domain in his/her class where his/her understudies feel that they are sheltered and ready to learn, second, “Makes the physical condition protected and helpful for learning”, says that the instructors’ make a physical domain in my class where my understudies feel that they are sheltered and ready to take in, the third one is “Imparts higher learning desires to every student” that the instructor make a classroom air that urges understudies to accomplish abnormal amounts of learning and accomplishment, and the fourth strand in this area is, “Sets up and keeps up steady models of students’ conduct” clarifying that the instructor must make a predictable and methodical social atmosphere and association in the classroom for my understudies.
Consequently, we can see on this that the educators are sufficiently sure in showing whether in a remote zones, demonstrating the vital in wiping out classroom diversions, and extremely persuading and empowering that the students or an understudies themselves would locate their own particular scholarly change, as they play out their part on accommodating a social and physical condition inside which all understudies, paying little respect to their individual contrasts in learning, can connect with the distinctive learning exercises and work towards achieving elevated expectations of learning.

Table 7
Weighted Mean Distribution of Level of Competence of Secondary Teachers in Remote Areas
in the NCBTS Domain 3: Diversity of Learners
Statements WM DR
1. I am familiar with the different backgrounds, experiences, and capacities of my students. 3.27 AP
2. I am sensitive to how individual students respond differently to the different learning activities in my class. 3.42 AP
3. I see to it that my students’ recognizing, accepting, and respecting the differences in their backgrounds and capabilities. 3.46 AP
4. I create diverse types of learning activities that would help all my students develop in all aspects of the curriculum. 3.30 AP
5. I set clear, challenging, but achievable learning goals for all students in my class, regardless of their individual differences. 3.42 AP
6. I consider the differences in backgrounds, experiences, and capacities of my students in designing different learning activities for them. 3.48 AP
7. I create different learning activities to allow students with different capabilities and backgrounds to attain the learning standards. 3.40 AP
8. I help my students to learn whatever their capabilities, learning styles, cultural heritage, socio-economic backgrounds, and other differences. 3.29 AP
9. I set diverse, appropriate, and challenging learning goals for different students, in consideration of their differences in backgrounds and capabilities. 3.38 AP
10. I assure to my students to feel that I am trying to help them learn, whatever their capabilities, learning styles, cultural heritage, socio-economic backgrounds, and other differences. 3.60 AP
AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN 3.41 AP
Holistically, it is rated with 3.41 average weighted mean described as “Always Practiced” that signifies the general strand of this domain by determining, understanding and accepting the learners’ diverse background knowledge. As evident, from the table above that all of the descriptive rating in each statement shows ‘Always Practiced’, this means that the teachers are analytical when it comes to the students’ learning demands. They might tend to adapt their teaching strategies based on the skills of the students and on where their strengths lie. Also, the secondary MAPEH teacher-respondents, possess the guide question on this domain “Can I help my students learn whatever their capabilities, learning styles, cultural heritage, socio-economic backgrounds, and other differences are?” which is from NCBTS for the Filipino teachers.
Then again, (Ambag, 2015) instructors accentuates the perfect that they can encourage the learning procedure in various sorts of students, by first perceiving and regarding singular contrasts, at that point utilizing information about understudies’ disparities to plan assorted arrangements of learning exercises to guarantee that all understudies can accomplish suitable learning objectives. In this manner, understudies are relied upon to decide, comprehend and acknowledge the students’ differing foundation information and experience.
Hence, the instructor ought to escalate the fitted learning knowledge for his/her students, thinking about the moderation of troubles, money related status of the understudies, elucidation hopes for understudies and should think about choices as far as learning methodologies, techniques and openings. Besides, as what Howard Gardner’s hypothesis on various insight, he said that individuals are life form who have a fundamental arrangement of insights, he additionally contends that the huge test confronting the organization of HR is hot to best exploit the uniqueness gave on us as an animal categories displaying a few knowledge.

Table 8
Weighted Mean Distribution of Level of Competence of Secondary Teachers in Remote Areas
in the NCBTS Domain 4: Curriculum
Statements WM DR
1. I am clear about what my learning goals are for my different students. 3.52 AP
2. I assure that my students understand the learning goals that I have set for them. 3.54 AP
3. I can clearly and accurately explain the goals, procedures, and content involved in the lessons. 3.50 AP
4. I can encourage my students to engage in higher order thinking in my class and interact with them appropriately. 3.29 AP
5. I design lessons that would allow various learning objectives to be addressed in an efficient and meaningful fashion. 3.44 AP
6. I can present the subject matter in meaningful and relevant ways that engage the students’ interest and motivation to learn. 3.50 AP
7. I can design learning activities and assessment procedures that are truly aligned with the important objectives of the lessons. 3.50 AP
8. I plan lessons in ways that consider the amount of time students need to effectively attain the learning goals of the lessons. 3.42 AP
9. I am able to align the activities and available learning resources with my students learning styles, goals, and other differences. 3.62 AP
10. I plan for and use varied instructional materials and learning resources to help my diverse students attain the objectives of the lessons. 3.52 AP
AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN 3.48 AP
The table displays the competency level of secondary MAPEH Teachers in remote areas in the Domain 4: Curriculum. Rated with an average weighted mean of 3.48 interpreted as “Always practiced”, that showing a very competent teacher in this domain, though this competency domain meet by the teachers the highest rating which pointing it out that their subject matter knowledge is deep enough to allow them to design lessons that motivate my students and engage them in higher order thinking. But in some situation, based on my back up interview to some teacher-respondents with regards to this domain, that they were affected by such factors like the following: 1) making good use of allotted instructional time and 2) selecting teaching methods, learning activities and the instructional materials because in their school context, the main or the primary challenge on a better communicating clear learning goals are lack of instructional materials that can help the teaching-learning process provide students a higher level of learning.
Going back to the statistical data, yet it shows the “Always Practiced ” descriptive rating but because of the said factors above, teachers must need to master directing their goals on respective subject matters, time management, selecting teaching aids that fits to the set-up of school and structuring the learning process as a whole and pursuing to have and to use modern gadgets that will help to a good flow of discussion.

This domain may likewise be thought about the exercise arranging of instructors. As can be referred to at (http://en_european/research_vol/2_lessonplanning), exercise target design in accordance with the educational programs is relied upon to give a positive learning result. An educator can just catch the aggregate consideration of his/her understudies by a very much created exercise design since it will mirror the understudies’ advantage. It likewise consolidates best practices for the instructive field. The exercise design corresponds with the instructor’s theory of training, which is discussion about the educators feels is the reason for teaching the understudies. This requires a great deal of time and exertion of the instructors and this is another point to be offered consideration regarding the investigation. An appraisal on how instructors set up their exercises, with the learning objectives and systems, will result to the disclosure of the quality and shortcomings of the present educational modules and instructive practices.

Table 9
Weighted Mean Distribution of Level of Competence of Secondary Teachers in Remote Areas
In the NCBTS Domain 5: Planning, Assessing and Reporting
Statements WM DR
1. I provide regular feedback to each student about their level of learning. 3.44 AP
2. I keep accurate records of each student’s progress and level of learning. 3.50 AP
3. I see to it that my students know about their own progress and attainment of the learning goals in my class. 3.44 AP
4. I use a variety of educational assessment procedures to determine whether my students are learning. 3.38 AP
5. I provide appropriate and timely feedback for students to help them monitor their own learning. 3.35 AP
6. I make sure that my students’ parents get regular and accurate feedback on their children’s progress in my class. 3.48 AP
7. I assure that the superiors in school know about the general progress of the students in my class in relation to the curriculum goals. 3.62 AP
8. I use the results of the various educational assessment procedures to guide how I plan, implement, and revise the teaching-learning activities I prepare for my students. 3.54 AP
9. I use effective and appropriate educational assessment procedures to determine whether my students are learning during the different parts of the teaching-learning activities. 3.48 AP
10. I assess my students’ learning and knowledge using appropriate educational assessment procedures, and use the information from these assessment procedures in planning my teaching-learning activities for the students. 3.56 AP
AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN 3.48 AP
The table shows 3.48 average weighted mean with the “Always Practiced” verbal description, in this domain we can see that the competency level of secondary MAPEH teachers in remote areas are highly competent but as what MacKensie said about this domain CITATION Mac10
l 1041 (2010), that students are expected to have direct experience in classroom like teaching assistance, classroom observation and practice teaching. They would also become creative and innovative in thinking of alternative teaching approaches, and evaluate the effectiveness of such approaches in improving student learning. In this case, just like on the preceding domain that has a high level result of competence but there are some factors which challenged the teaching process, this domain has its own weakness by the teaching factors on remote areas, as the researcher’s gathered back-up data by interviewing teacher respondents, they were struggled by conducting a regular meeting for parents, not as much too strong relationship on involving the parents in school activities that promote learning they think it is just because they don’t have enough area or place which can fit those activities to be proposed, that is why they were discouraged by planning such educational activities for school stakeholders.

On the other hand, in Planning, Assessing and Reporting, assessment is more emphasized as what Hammond CITATION Ham09
l 1041 (2009) said, the process of assessment should have the assurance in learners to give their best possible opportunities to demonstrate what they know and what they can. Collaboratively with children and families leads well-informed decision making and will have learners’ positive outcome. Inclusivity form of assessment must practice because it has an integral part on an effective cycle of planning, teaching and learning. Assessment processes involve the gathered data over time about the individuals and groups of students using a wide range of assessment tool and covering a range of context.

Looking at the succeeding table indicates competence level as “Always Practiced” rating and has an average weighted mean of 3.40 also fall under same category. Hence, the teacher always practiced the ideal that school activities are meaningfully linked to the experiences and aspirations of the students in their homes and communities. Thus the domain focuses on teachers’ efforts directed at strengthening the links between school and community activities, particularly as these links help in the attainment of the curricular objectives
Table 10
Weighted Mean Distribution of Level of Competence of Secondary Teachers in Remote Areas in the NCBTS Domain 6: Community Linkage
Statements WM DR
1. I assure that there are parent’s involvements for the learners’ performance in school. 3.58 AP
2. I exert efforts directed at strengthening the links between school and community activities 3.58 AP
3. I try to involve members of the community in supporting the learning goals of my classes. 3.37 AP
4. I make an activity that the community has a contribution for the learning goals of the students. 3.37 AP
5. I draw from resources, ideas, and activities from my students’ communities in my teaching-learning activities. 3.29 AP
6. I make sure that my students see how the goals and activities in school relate to the values and aspirations in their homes and communities. 3.35 AP
7. I try to motivated those some students perceive that the class activities are irrelevant to their activities and aspirations at home and in the community. 3.38 AP
8. I make sure that all of my students perceive that all of the class activities are relevant to their activities and aspirations at home and in the community. 3.40 AP
9. I try to collaborate with other external stakeholder of the school for the betterment of our instructional materials that will be going to use for discussions. 3.35 AP
10. I assure that the goals and characteristics of the teaching-learning activities I implement are relevant to the experiences, values and aspirations in my students’ communities. 3.40 AP
AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN 3.40 AP
CITATION Bilue l 1041 (Bilbao, 2009 ), that the domain referring to the community and the school are two important social institutions. They have organic linkage as the school cannot be seen as an independent institution isolated from the society in which it is located. With regards to the decentralization of the school education, the community and school interface is linked to it’s over all process.
Table 11
Weighted Mean Distribution of Level of Competence of Secondary Teachers in Remote Areas in the NCBTS Domain 7:
Personal Growth and Professional Development
Statements WM DR
1. I am enthusiastic about my responsibilities as a teacher. 3.67 AP
2. I try to improve my teaching so that my students can learn more. 3.69 AP
3. I feel responsible for the level of learning and achievement of my students. 3.58 AP
4. I can say that I am well-informed about recent developments in education. 3.27 AP
5. I engage other teachers in my school in discussions to improve our teaching practices. 3.25 AP
6. I participate in some professional teacher organizations that aim to improve teaching practice. 3.44 AP
7. I take systematic steps to ensure that I continuously improve myself as a professional teacher. 3.48 AP
8. I recognize the strong and weak aspects of my teaching that may or may not help my students learning. 3.40 AP
9. I assure that my colleagues sees my actions and statements how much I value my profession as a teacher. 3.55 AP
10. I make sure that my actions and statements indicate a high regard for the teaching profession and for my continuous development as a professional teacher. 3.46 AP
AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN 3.46 AP
As we can see on the table that the teachers’ actions and statements indicate a high regard for the teaching profession and for his/her continuous development as a professional teacher, also the teachers are aware of the extent to which his/her practices as a teacher influence their students’ attainment of the learning goals; as the verbal description is “Always Practiced” and has 3.46 AWM.

It can signify that the morality and integrity of the teacher-respondents were shown which serve to be typical role models for the students; they adapt the modernization and flexible skills for their own growth as a teacher and also they held on their own development.
On the other hand, as Borabo (2009) cited that he emphasizes in the NCBTS paradigm, that the teachers are constructor of teacher knowledge, have active and processors, who are responsible for their own growth and development as educator.
Correlate between the challenges and competencies of teachers in remote areas
Table 12
Correlation between Competencies and Challenges of Secondary
Teachers in Remote Areas
Correlations
Competencies Distant
Walking Transpor-tationServices BehaviorCulture
Competencies Pearson Correlation 1 -.115 -.196 .301* .145
Sig. (2-tailed) .417 .163 .030 .306
N 52 52 52 52 52
**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)
Based on the table above, the behavior either in the community, officials, students or even their colleagues have a significant relationship with the competencies of the teachers with a correlation coefficient 0.301 and with significant value or p-value 0.030, which is less than 0.05. This indicates that the competencies of the respondents are affected by the misbehavior of students, poor connections and relationship with students’ parents, also affected by the support from barangay officials, community and colleagues. The competencies and the other challenges have no significant relationship since all the p-values are greater than 0.05.

To obvious this table concerning the connection of abilities and conduct challenges in remote zone, examined part of network pleasantries in supporting/upsetting educator maintenance. Provincial people group are frequently commended for the advantages of a country way of life they offer, for example, a more advantageous, calmer, and more secure way of life; be that as it may, those advantages of the rustic way of life accompany some generous impediments which are guessed to posture hindrances to holding instructors in rustic territories. Showing commitment and degree of consistency are accepted to be higher when educators have a more grounded feeling of connectedness to the network coming about because of either having a solid family organize inside the network or having been made to feel welcome and a piece of the network by other network individuals (Miller, 2012).
4.Develop a competency-based primer
In this manner, the competency-based groundwork was created; it was adjusted and altered from the structure of NCBTS, a standard apparatus to survey the level of capability of educators and a brought together system for instructor improvement. The scientist build up this groundwork to have the capacity to serves it as a guide or a device to decide every individual instructor’s quality and shortcomings alongside the said capabilities, nonstop evaluation will energize educators in assuming individual liability in their own particular development and headway to advance better understudy adapting regardless of whether it is situated in a remote territory. This could put instructors as an extremely tenable good example and a successful facilitator of learning. This might be the reason for the plan of an In-Service Training Program for educators as the said program may define by some establishment that additionally go for enhancing the skills of instructors in teaching the adolescents.
Besides, this preliminary has a guide for instructor in remote school with respects for the changes that fundamentally cause a culture stun impact to educators; this could be useful for the educator who encountering some sort of difficulties inside the remote network.

5275448-511438Chapter V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents a brief review of the study, the conclusion as well as the recommendations.

Summary
This study was conducted with the purpose of developing a competency-based primer from the weak result of significant relationship between the assessed competence level of secondary MAPEH teachers in remote areas and challenges within the remote context. To assess the competency level encloses the seven domain; (1) social regard for learning, (2) the learning environment, (3) diversity of learners, (4) curriculum, (5) planning, assessing and reporting, (6) community linkages and (7) personal growth and professional development, adapted from National Competency – Based for Teacher Standards or NCBTS while to determine which factor and challenges affects the competencies it encloses the physical challenges determining the factors from distant walking and transportation services likewise the social challenges determining the factors from behavior and culture within the context.
The result shows that the only field that has the p-value or significant value from the competencies in the Pearson’s r correlation is the behavior under by the social context. Therefore, the researcher tends to develop a competency-based primer that can be able to aid the weak connection of the research result and will be beneficial for remote teachers.
From the analysis and interpretation of data presented, the following findings were derived:
The results revealed in the tabular representation of physical challenges faced by the teacher-respondents shows that they were challenged by the distance of school away from the town proper of the municipality, affected by stiff and mountainous way and it leads to tiredness and fatigue that affects their teaching strategies and teaching process. While the transportation services in order to go to school has also a factor the affects the teaching process, because it shows from the presented data that the teacher respondents affected by the limited routes going to the school, and as the context of remote area is typically mountainous and some teacher respond that they were doubtful with regards to their safety from the vehicles going to the school, like habal-habal and it also shows that their energy in teaching lowers by the said challenges.

Based on the tabular representation of determining the competency level of the remote teachers, it shows that the respondents exemplify a high level of competence in the different domain as follows (1) social regard for learning, (2) the learning environment, (3) diversity of learners, (4) curriculum, (5) planning, assessing and reporting, (6) community linkages and (7) personal growth and professional development.

The result of the data in social challenges finds that under by the behavior challenges in remote area the teacher-respondents were affected by the misbehavior of some students, less involvement of parents, less support of the barangay officials and less community support and affected by the misjudgments of their colleagues. The data presented in culture challenges finds that the tradition, belief, customs of the people in the community has a big factor for their adjustment so why they had a hard time adjusting to the community itself. Furthermore, the multi-aged group of students and technological disadvantage to the remote school area has also a big factor to affect negatively the teaching-learning process.
There has a significant relationship between the competencies and behavior challenges as it result to develop a competency-based primer for teachers.

Conclusions
Based on the research problem, the secondary teachers affected by the challenges in distant walking and transportation services, to prove, that the AWM are 3.05 and 2.75 which both indicate that the descriptive rating is “Agree”, likewise from the result of behavior and culture challenges has the descriptive rating of “Agree” and has the average weighted means are 2.92 and 2.73 but mostly challenged by the behavior in the social context of remote areas which shows that the competencies of the respondents are affected by the misbehavior of students, poor connections and relationship with students’ parents, also affected by the weak support from barangay officials, less involvement of community and negative feedback of their colleagues and it has the p-value or the significant value in correlations between the challenges and the competencies; a high competency level from the framework or domains of NCBTS (social regard for learning, the learning environment, diversity of learners, curriculum, planning, assessing and reporting, community linkages and personal growth and professional development.) Thus, the developed competency-based primer was developed.

Recommendations
In the light of the findings and conclusions, the following are recommended:
Future researcher may look for other challenges in remote areas that might correlate by the competencies.

Similar nature of the study in other locale of remote areas may possibly conduct by the future researcher.

Future researcher may correlate the challenges in every domain of the NCBTS.
Future researcher may adopt or modify this study whenever there is need for improvisation of this paper.

Future researcher may evaluate the developed competency-based primer to be more reliable
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