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BIOMASS POWER PLANTS
Nouf Mohammed Alhosani – H00354303
Mariam Ahmed Alhammadi – H00328277
11 Sep 2018
Introduction:
Energy from the sun, via photosynthesis in plants. As we know this is the same energy we use as food and this is the same energy that made fossil fuels. Fuels are concentrated over time by the temperature and pressure within the Earth. Qualification of burning biomass to electricity is about the same as with fossil fuels.

Biomass consider as a renewable energy source as we know that comes from animals, plants, environment, life compose. We can find it anywhere that we have burned things like wood, garbage, plants and animals waste. Forest might be a good place for biomass power or even at home if you have a fire place so then you have biomass energy. This report will discuss the principle of operation of biomass power plant, main parts and the functions of it, will give a layout for the plant with schematic diagram, then will give the advantages and disadvantages of the plant and finally the environmental impacts of biomass plant. Biomass is a changeful source of energy in that it can be easily and quickly stored and transformed into electricity and heat. It has also the potential that it is used as a raw material for production of fuel and chemical feedstock.

Biomass is a sustainable fuel that can both offer a significant reduction in net carbon emissions compared with fossil fuels and also many ancillary benefits. Most preferred fuels for gasification have been charcoal and wood. However biomass residues are the most appropriate fuels for on-farm system and offer the greatest challenge to researchers and gasification system manufactures.

Biomass is constitutional material that comes from plants and animals, and it is a renewable source of energy. Biomass contains stored energy from the sun. Plants realize the sun’s energy in a process called photosynthesis. When biomass is burned, the chemical energy in biomass is released as heat. Biomass can be burned directly or transform to liquid biofuels or biogas that can be burned as fuels.

Using materials from nature to heat, cook and produce energy is by no means a new idea. In addition, it is the oldest source of renewable energy, used since our ancestors first learned to use fire. Nowadays, we can regain energy from biomass in highly efficient energy plants – generating heat, process steam, electricity, syngas, bio-oil. Most of our biomass energy solutions are combined heat and power (CHP). Biomass generation is known to be a carbon-neutral power source and is being adopted as an important substitutional to fossil fuel baseload generation
How efficient is it?
The electrical efficiency rating of biomass power stations using traditional technology is between 35%. This is why biomass power stations are often used for concerted heat and power generation. The waste heat produced when electricity is generated can be fed into a local district heating network, for instance, and can supply entire internal areas with heat. This can result in very high efficiency ratings of 80 percent and more, compared to the input elementarty energy of the biomass used in each case. This makes the process of obtaining energy from biomass particularly efficient
Examples of biomass and their uses for energy:
•Wood and wood processing wastes ared used to burned to heat buildings, to produce process heat in industry, and to generate electricity
•Agrarian crops and waste materials are used to burned as a fuel or transformed to liquid biofuels
•Food, yard, and wood waste in refuse are used to burned to generate electricity in power plants or converted to biogas in landfills
•Animal compost and human sludge are used to converted to biogas, which can be burned as a fuel
Principle of Operation:
376110557531000Biomass can be burned directly or converted to liquid biofuels or biogas that can be burned as fuels. Biomass power plant works on simple principle of fuel burning. First, fuel will be burned in a boiler to generate steam. Second, the steam will move from the boiler to pipes to run the turbines to generate electricity by the generator. Furthermore, they use the heat that comes from the steam to heat an area or any home.

Main Parts and their functions:
Biomass power plant have these major components:
Fuel storage area: used to store the biomass power or fuel.

Fuel conveyor system: provide transportation which it transfers the fuel to chipper or directly to plant.

Chipper/ grinder: makes the texture of the fuel finer and soft from any large waste.

Boiler: burning the water to generate a steam.

Steam turbine: rotates to turn the generator ON then the electricity will be produced.

Generator: when steam turbine runs or rotated then generator will turn ON to generate electricity.

Condenser: cooling the steam and converted into water then it goes back to the boiler to repeat the prosses again.

Electrical substation: this will distribute the electricity for homes, industries, schools, hospitals, etc.

-18120239740200Power Plant Layout:
Fuel is stored in a bunker then transfer it the boiler. In the boiler, water is heated to high temperature under pressure. Then, Steam in the boiler goes and run or power the turbine, which it’s connected to the generator. Steam that has passed through the turbine heats district heating water, which is distributed through the district heating network’s piping. Finally, we can use this carbon neutral and organic renewable energy for providing an electricity for the consumers in cheapest price.
Schematic Diagram
How does it work?
In a direct burning system, biomass is burned in a burn to produce hot gas, which is fed into a generator to generate steam, which is outspread through a steam turbine or steam engine to produce electrical energy.

In a direct burning system, processed biomass is the generator fuel that produces steam to operate a steam turbine and generator to make electricity.

How do we convert biomass energy to useful forms of energy?
•Direct burning
•Gasification
•Cofiring
•Fermentation
Direct burning is as it sounds. Plant material is chipped, dried, and then burned to boil water, make steam, and then electricity.

Gasification is the conversion of biomass into a gas and carbon powder. The gases are used to run a turbine. They are then recycled back to be burned for fuel which increases overall efficiency.

One of the advantages of gasification are:
•Cleaner but still ash to deal with.

•More efficient.

Cofiring is the use of biomass in combination with coal.
One of the advantages of cofiring are:
•Biomass cheaper than coal, so cofiring is cheaper than burning coal alone.

•Less sulfur oxides (less coal burned); pollution and cost savings.

•Easy to adapt current systems to cofiring.

Fermentation is the production of alcohol (ethanol mainly) from sugars in biomass. The alcohol can be burned alone, or mixed with gasoline.

Advantages ; Disadvantages
Advantages of the Biomass
Some of the advantages of using biomass as a source of energy are illustrated below.

Relatively low pollution.

Carbon dioxide released is converted back to plants (carbon dioxide neutral)
Multiple uses of biomass.
Bioproducts include plastics, medicines and other materials traditionally produced from oil.

Reduce waste, and save landfill space.
About 85% of material put into landfills is plant material that could be combusted for energy. Paper alone is about 55%. Key is waste separation. It is expensive to separate paper from paint, for example; and burning paper contaminated with paint creates toxic wastes that get into the atmosphere. About 15% of waste is currently burned, (for energy or, in most cases, for waste reduction).

Relatively cheap.
Costs today are about 9 cents per kilowatt hour. This is about the same, or less, as energy from fossil fuels. Costs are expected to be even less in the future as crops grown for fuel become more available.

The Biomass energy is an sufficient, protected, environmental friendly, and renewable source of energy. So, it does not add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere as it realize the same amount of carbon in growing as it releases when consumed as a fuel.

Biomass is easily available and can be grown with relative ease in all parts of the world.

One of the major advantages of biomass is that it can be used to generate electricity with the same equipment or in the same power plants that are now burning fossil fuels.

As there is many Biomass power plants resources are geographically varied but according to the political the risk is limited.

By using biomass in power (Renewable) canalization instead of using fossil fuels, it will reduce the radiation of CO2.

When Biomass is decently managed the carbon will be neutral over time.

Alcohols and other fuels produced by biomass are functional, applicable, and relatively clean burning.

Disadvantages of the Biomass
Some of the disadvantages of using biomass as a source of energy are illustrated below.

Presently it is difficult to secure the supply of larger volumes of biomass power.

Nowadays Biomass is more expensive than using energy sources such as coal, gas or nuclear power, etc.

Biomass is still an expensive source of energy such as coal, gas or nuclear power, etc. both in terms of producing biomass and converting it into alcohols, as we have very large quantity of biomass is needed.

One of the disadvantages of biomass is that direct combustion of biomass can be harmful to the environment as burning biomass releases carbon dioxide, which contributes to the warming of the atmosphere and possible climatic change. Burning also creates soot and other air pollutants.

One of the disadvantages of biomass is that direct burning of biomass can be harmful to the environments burning biomass releases CO2 , which participate to the warming of the atmosphere and possible climatic change. Burning also creates ash and other air pollutants.

Biomass Energy is difficult to store in the raw form.

Environmental Impacts
In the recent years, environmental focus-on have been raised by handling with greenhouse gases produced from the transportation industry. There is many contributing cause of greenhouse gas revival is the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, diesel, oil and gasoline. Currently, there has been a rising interest in biofuels and this goes to the rising energy costs and environmental problems. policy-making and energy managers should need to know how they can have lower costs by reaching to limit environmental impacts.
Environmentally, biomass has some advantages over fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum. Biomass contains little sulfur and nitrogen, so it does not produce the pollutants that can cause acid rain. Burning biomass releases CO2, but growing plants for use as biomass fuels may also help keep CO2 levels balanced. Plants remove CO2 —a greenhouse gas—from the atmosphere when they grow.

Conclusion
In conclusion, the innovation (biomass industry) has many advantages and disadvantages. Biomass industry is renewable and blameless to living things. The biomass industry is able to make a lot of energy with a small amount of biomass material. Although biomass industry will be expensive it can be a very big step in protecting the resources in the world and reducing greenhouse gases that involve the environment greatly. Even though biomass industry will be releasing emissions into the atmosphere, but will be much less than any other industry as the innovation will be using the emissions also to produce energy.

Biomass-based power systems are unparalleled among non-hydro renewable power sources because of their wide range of applicability to a various set of needs. As we know that Biomass-based systems are the only non-hydro renewable source of electricity that can be used for base-load electricity generation. In the past, there have been significant improvements in renewable energy technologies along with declines in cost. The growing concern for the environment and sustainable development, have led to worldwide interest in renewable energies and bio-energy in particular. Biomass can be converted into modern energy forms such as liquid and gaseous fuels, electricity, and process heat to provide energy services needed by rural and urban populations and also by industry.

References
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