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Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated country in the world. Dhaka is the capital of the country and is also one of the top ten most densely populated city in the world with about 18 million people living in the city. Along with the population, faulty traffic system, narrow roads, lacking of manpower and drivers tendency of overtaking causes long traffic jam. During busy hours the views in important crossing shows the raw scenarios of Dhaka city’s traffic congestion. The basic problem could be said that the existing road network in not capable of handling the increasing number of motor vehicle.
The larger objective should be finding the causes along with the solutions of traffic jam, rank them according to their importance and effect on the economy. The field of the study is finite between these, the survey of ordinary peoples and expert point of views. For the study we have to know the data requirements, their sources and the ways of collecting them. To study about it we have to cover the people suffering from traffic jams, researchers of the field and government official who make these rules. Focused group discussions, inquiry survey, personal interview and direct observation would be the primary source of data. Articles and journals related to them and earlier work related information could also provide useful data.

Causes of Traffic Jam:
There are a number of different reasons from different peoples. These peoples can be categorized into three groups to list their point of views. The categories are:
1. General people
2. Vehicle drivers
3. Experts
General peoples are the most common victims of the traffic jams. From their point of views the causes are:
• Less road space
• Over population
• Not enough roads
• Traffic rule violations
• Lack of city road planning
• Unplanned stoppage
• Different speed vehicles
• Lack of law executions
• Higher number of private cars and rickshaws
• Lack of driving skills
Vehicle Operators are the people causing these jams but they have some different point of views of their own for the causes of these traffic congestions.
• Traffic rule violations
• Excessive Vehicles
• Lack of Traffic police
• Rickshaws
• Reckless driving

Experts says there are a lot of reasons for these situations and some of the main reasons are:
• Insufficient road length
• Unplanned city growth
• Unproductive traffic management
• Deficiency of Mass traffic system

Impact of Traffic Jam:
Impact can also be viewed in three ways and the ways are –
1. Health
2. Environment
3. Economy
General people and the vehicle drivers suffer the most in the congestion. From different surveys the main sufferings to be found were
• Breathing problem
• Headache
• Mental and physical stress
• Hearing problem
• Excessive sweating
Environment is polluted by traffic jams in two ways. They are sound and air pollution. Almost 95% people agree to the problem that these excessive noise is a big problem. The air pollution caused by the emission of harmful gases from vehicles play a greater role in global warming which is harming our planet as a whole.

Economic impact by traffic jams is damaging our country which cannot be seen through the naked eyes. We are losing money in four ways:
• Loss of working hours
• Unnecessary fuel consumption
• Vehicle operating cost
• Extra Transportation cost

Solution of Traffic Jams:
Solving the problem is not an easy task and it would be a long process. Solutions are different from people of different groups.
1. From General people’s point of view the main solutions said were:
• Awareness building
• Flyovers
• Subways
• Strict traffic law implementation
• Removing excess rickshaws

2. From Vehicle driver’s point of view the main solutions were:
• Dedicated roads for vehicles
• Decentralization
• Flyovers
• Strict Traffic law implementation

3. From Expert’s point of view the solutions were given under term basis:
a) Short term basis which were to be conducted in less than 5 years
• Increase in pedestrian facilities
• Non-motorized Transport free road
• Banning unauthorized parking
• Modern signaling system
• Car free days
• Use of over bridges
• Discourage use of private cars
b) Mid-term basis which were to be conducted in 5 to 10 years:
• Raised up Highways
• One authority control
• Sufficient and designated parking space
• Connecting important roads
• Better rail and river ferries
c) Long term solutions to be conducted in more than 10 years:
• Environment sustainable transport
• Mass rapid transit
• Grade separated road network

The local media has been highlighting the problem constantly but any real solution is yet to be seen. Various attempts were taken by the government which guaranteed evident improvements but nothing changed as the traffic police remained disinterested towards their duty. The public buses does not drop or pick up passengers from authorized bus stops, making stops on the middle of the road and overtaking from wrong sides but the traffic police tens to ignore them. The Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) had installed traffic lights throughout the city to ease traffic congestion but a good number of them have been out of order. The rickshaws is also said to play an important role in traffic congestions.
We need to reduce these traffic congestions for this city to help the country thrive as it’s the capital and most of the political and business related works are held here. Reducing traffic will make our country healthier as well as wealthier.

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