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Abstract
I have chosen these two author it gave me the different opinion how they describe about racial and ethnic discrimination. The first author (Barkan) opinion that he will describe about racial and ethnic discrimination go back history for instinct Civil War and through Christopher Columbus. The next author (McConahaybetty), his opinion is different than Barkan. He states that white do not discriminate against African American and treat them equality. He also states about different color marriage that it should be allow. These two articles will come to me with Charles Chestnut with color skin.
Keyword: The history, individual discrimination and intuitional discrimination.
Racial and Ethnic Discrimination
Racial and ethnic discrimination has remained and unresolved issue in Untied States and other countries around the globe. I find the topic quite sensitive because of its persistence in the contemporary world and my belief that discrimination should be eliminated in the modern-day world. In his book “Social Problem: Continuity and changes”, (Barkan, Dec. 2015) give a historical background of ethnic and racial discrimination. Further, he goes ahead to discuss how the two forms of discrimination occur under different instances. I chose this resource because it is not only educative on the topic but also give an in-depth insight on the same issue.
History
Barkan observes that racial and ethnical discrimination in the United States dates back from the era of Christopher Columbus. The book narrates how white settlers and the U.S army killed thousands of Native Americans to secure land and other property. African Americans were also maltreated during the colonial era. Notably, Africans were captured and forcibly taken from their homelands and sold as slaves. By the end of the Civil War, African Americans living in the south were not regarded as slaves but were subject to racial prejudice. Numerous African American folks suffered attacks from white mobs in Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Cincinnati, and Philadelphia among other cities and towns. The era of Jim Crow was marred by racial extremism where multiple African Americans were lynched (Barkan, 2013, pg.1.1).
Individual Discrimination
In the book, Barkan cites individual discrimination as one of the prejudices faced by African Americans in the United States. Some African American individuals confessed that they have been harassed by the police, offered poor service in restaurants and stores, and denied service in different facilities because of their complexion. In 2012, George Zimmerman shot a seventeen-year-old called Trayvon Martin. Martin was an African American teenager walking in a white neighborhood when Zimmerman spotted and shot him dead claiming that he looked suspicious. Notably, Zimmerman did so even after being warned by the police to stay away from Martin. Martin’s incident highlights a case of individual discrimination.” Racial and ethical discrimination is also common in workplaces. In an interview carried out on Mexican American women, 40% of them stated that they had experienced discrimination based on their gender and ethnicity” (Barkan, pg. 1.2). Some of them expressed that they have received condescending comments about their Mexican backgrounds and education level. Workplace discrimination may deny individuals from certain ethnic and racial backgrounds the chance gets to top management level or getting promotions (Barkan, 2013, pg. 1.2).
Institutional Discrimination
Barkan observes that loan officers in the United States consider numerous factors before issuing a loan or when reviewing mortgage applications. The primary factors to consider include credit history, employment, and income. The law prohibits loaning officers from factoring race and ethnicity when reviewing applicants. However, it is reported that Latinos and African Americans have the highest probability of having their mortgage applications rejected. Notably, this is because members of these groups tend to be relatively poor than their white counterparts. Other studies consider African American and Latinos who have good credit histories and have the similar jobs and incomes as their white counterparts. Such studies show that the Latinos and African Americans are still likely to have their mortgage applications rejected. Mortgage rejection against races in the United States leads to residential segregation. It is common to find certain neighborhoods housing only folks from a given race. Housing segregation is unlawful but widespread. Wealth gaps between the whites and other races like the Hispanics and the African Americans continue to widen because of the unchecked multiple forms of ethical and racial discrimination.
Racist
The article “Racist behavior is declining in America?” by author McConahaybetty 1981, explores the possibility that racism is progressively reducing in America. I chose this article on the basis that it gives arguments that contradict views by McConahaybetty. According to the article, recent studies reveal a nationwide decline in negative stereotyping, resistance to equality, and expressions of prejudice. For instance, it is stated that a white is highly likely to aid an African American individual in an emergency just as he would offer the same help to a fellow white person. It is highlighted that from the period 2011 to 2014 the number of hate groups in America had drastically reduced but increased again during the presidential campaign period. Opposition to living next to an individual of another race and disapproval of interracial marriages have reportedly reduced. Previously, most families’ American families especially those of African American and white descent have always felt uncomfortable in interracial unions. However, this trend is on the decline, and interracial marriages are being witnessed now and then by author McConahaybetty, 1981.
Baking Loans, Economics

Also, when it comes to holding political offices and workplace discrimination, African Americans who have high levels of education often find themselves lucrative jobs unlike in the past where white people dominated most of the private and public sectors of employment. The election of Barrack Obama as president of the United States also proved that racial and ethnic discrimination is no more. “Notably, Obama got 43% of the white votes in 2008 and 39% in 2012. Professed racist acts and views have been on a steady decline. Ethnically and racially fueled hate crimes have also reduced by 48% according to the FBI. Further, the progressive change is alluded to positive images that are shown on the television, such images bring about cohesion” (McConahaybetty, 1981, pg.563). It is also argued that the police do not discriminate against African Americans when it comes to apprehending and sentencing criminals. Notably, the high level of poverty among African-Americans, Hispanics and other minority groups can be blamed for rise in criminal activities perpetrated by members of these communities.
Conclusion
Racial and ethnic discrimination is a sensitive issue that must be dealt with cautiously so that the American dream of equality is realized. Sensitization programs should be promoted so that the citizens of United States should learn to appreciate the diverse races and ethnic groups. Employers and the government should also work towards eliminating workplace discrimination by offering employment based on qualifications rather than ethnicity. In chosen two article the one I agree on is my first article, because in our modern-day discrimination is still a continue problem in our society.

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