The KSD Municipality are encountering a major phase of turn down with regard to the delivery of services. This has seen a notable mass departure of available skills and reduced investment in human capital development which is in addition to the severe shortage of skills in the various sectors. The sectors, moreover are in need of intermediate artisan skills, which can be solved by a remarkable investment in human capital and workplace contact which can increasingly develop interpersonal, systematic and artisan skills. Against this background, KING SABATHA DALINYEBO MUNICIPALITY (KSD), like most public sector Municipalities are affected by the plague of weak delivery in services, with employees in the organization not executing their duties up to the expected of the standards. Employees who own the reputation of the municipality and can adversely affect its profitability are most valuable asset of every municipalities (McKinsey Quarterly,2006).
Employees, more often than not are responsible for the majority of necessary work to be done as well as customer satisfaction, the quality of the event and services. Both old and new employees do not develop the necessary set of skills for task achievement at their optimum potential without proper training and development. Properly trained and development is expected in the workplace. Employees without proper training and development lack a organisation grab on their duties and responsibilities. Training and development according to (shaw , 2011) is a process that provides employees with skills , information and understanding of the organisation and its goal.
Training and development helps employees in making the positive contribution that are necessary to the success of an organisation in terms of his or her good performance on the job. Training is of much meaning in achieving the objectives of the organisation by keeping in view the interest of employees and organization (Stone 2002). Training includes but not limited to software training, management training whereas development focuses primarily on the activities that improve employee skills for future endeavours. Municipalities are now facing new changes due to the quick pace of technological and global development.
Training methods that apply an impact on the job must also be recognized so that an employee should be trained in order to occupy that specific space .The employee avenues to enhance their basic skill in order to help them cope with situations that are much difficulty .A minimum of 40 hours suggested by the American society for training and development (Kreitner et al..,2004).
2.BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
King SabathaDalindyebo Local Municipality is a municipality situated in the inland of EasternCape Province in South Africa. The municipality is made up of Mthatha and Mqanduli. The KSD local municipality is one of seven local municipalities within the Oliver Reginald Tambo District Municipality.the KSD local municipality was established before the 2000 local government election when the Mthatha and Mqanduli transitional and rural areas were merged.
The municipality was named after King SabathaDalindyebo because he was seen as a unifying figure to the people of both Mthatha and Mqanduli and was as a hero who fought for the freedom of Transkei and South Africa. In terms of the critical skills required by most companies, there is a significant shortage of experienced managers, professional project managers, candidate project managers and qualified artisans in South Africa. This shortage threatens to block service delivery unless improved delivery servicesare instituted
Training should assist individual performance to impact positively on organisational services both in the short term and in the future. The municipal council consists of seventy- two members elected by mixed-member proportional representation. Thirty six councillors are elected by first- past-the – post voting in thirty six wards, while the remaining thirty six are chosen from party lists so that the total number of party representatives is proportional to the number of votes received. In the election of 3 august 2016 African National Congress won a majority of six-seats on the council.
3.SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Employees are able to balance their work life and personal life in a much better way.
Such programs help in improving physical and psychological health of the employees, thereby bringing down the absenteeism as well as turnover rate.
Training programs helps in determining path goal of an employee.
These programs lead to successful negotiation and enable the designing of the contracts which satisfy all sorts of employees.
They improve the communication at all levels of management which helps in minimizing conflict between different levels of employees.
These programs also aim at the progress of the individuals in their personal and professional lives.
It helps in bridging the gap between employees and employer,thereby making them more loyal with their concern.
4.PRIMARY RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The impact of training and development on employee performance in KSD Municipality.
5.SECONDARY RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the factors affecting training and development?
2.What is the impact of training and development on service delivery ?
3.What is the impact of training and development on employee performance?
4.What are the strategies that can be used to improve the training and development ?
The aim of this study is to give a clear picture that the impact of training and development in the municipality is good because if the employers don’t train and develop the skills of the employees that can have a bad impact in the service delivery. The main reason is that employers must keep in their mind that every employee have to be upgraded in order for them to render good service delivery.
Objectives of the study
To investigate factors affecting training and development of employees at KSD Municipality.
To determine the impact of training and development on organisational service delivery at KSD Municipality.
To investigate the impact of training on employee performance at KSD Municipality.
To recommend strategies that can be used to improve the training and development of employees at KSD Municipality.
8..SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is limited to the employees of OR TAMBO Municipality in South Africa, who will be given the questioners to complete.
9.1 Employers do not regularly consider the feelings of their employees regarding skills development. Accordingly, Frost, Vos and Dreyer(2003;147) claim that the traditional business organisation is closely modelled on the military style of management , probably because armies are the largest and almost certainly the oldest human organisation. In response to this Katcher and Snyder(2003:90) identify some of the reasons why employers need their employers to continuously learn new skills:
CAPITAL IMPPROVEMENT: Organisations tend to spend millions of rand on upgrading their plants and equipment ,yet little on upgrading their human capital .Employees are an asset to the organisation but profit maximisation rather than employees do not be receive on ongoing training ,up to date equipment will not use optimally.
MORALE IMPROVEMENT:Employees who continuously upgrade their job skills not only plays a role in the workplace,but in the external world as well. If contributes to the full personal development of each employee and the socio-economic development of nation at large.
ABILITY TO ADAPT TO CHANGE: The more skilled the workforce is the easier it will be for the entire organisation to adapt to change that may arise in the domestic and global market place in the demand of its products and services. Sometimes employees are reluctant to adapt to change because of the uncertainty involved but one of the objectives of the skills development Act 97 of 1998 is to develop the skills of the South Africa as well as increasing levels of investment in education and training in the labour market.
9.2 WHY IS EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT IMPORTANT?
Employee development is something that most people imagine as intrusive all day group training sessions. Unfortunately, this dreaded approach to employee development is just the opposite of how employee development should occur and feel to employees. Employee development can manifest itself in many forms of training, evaluation, education programmes and even feedback. if executed correctly , the effects of training on employee performance can often encourage growth within the worker and the organisation itself(Katcher and Snyder,2003).
EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT: A self-fulfilling prophecy .One of the larger aspects of developing employee’s skills and abilities is the actual organisational focus on the employee to become better, either as a person or as a contributor to organisation .The attention given by an organisation, coupled with increased expectations following the training opportunity can lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy of enhanced output by the employee. Employees that receive regular,scheduled feedback ,including training ,along with an increase in expectations, actually have a higher level of worker output(Katcher and Snyder,2003).
PERCEIVED BENEFITS OF EMPLOYEES DEVELOPMENT: Beside supporting the organisation ,employees might recognise that most type of employee development initiatives provide them with benefits .employee development programmes that range from certification to education reimbursement ,even to basic job skills training have a certain cost to the organisation that can easily be considered a benefit to the employees such awareness on the part of the employee can also lead well as enhanced job satisfaction training and development that can be added to the employees resumes are big ticket items of compensation plans(Taylor;2000:455).
EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT LIMITES ORGANISATIONAL LIABILITY: According to Frost et al.(2000),most human resource professionals would agree that limiting organisational liability when training employee is a very important aspect of employee development . Certain jobs require training and certification in order for an employee to successfully execute the minimum job requirements related to that position. The proper documentation of employee’s completion of their job cannot only help follow and development training, but also limit liability in the case of human error on the part of these employees.
An example of how documented employee training could be helpful would be if a stockroom employee were assigned the position of forklift operator. Obviously the organisation would be expected to put this employee through all the necessary training to ensure the employee can operate the equipment, and do so in accordance with any applicable policies and regulations. Although employee training documentation will almost never completely protect an employer from legal liabilities
,training certification can hopefully reduce legal costs and reputation damage for the organisation (Frost et al.2000).
The purpose of training and development can be elaborated as under:
IMPROVES QUALITY OF WORKFORCE: Training and development programs aids in improving the quality of work done by the employee’s in an organisation. Organisations conduct various training sessions for the particular purpose.
ENHANCE EMPLOYEE GROWTH: By attending these training and development programs, employees can enhance ability to work. This enables them to develop and grow professionally.
RESTRUCTURING: These programs help employees to keep themselves up breast with the new technology, leading to proper utilisation of time and resources which ultimately gives them more job security.
SOCIALIZATION: With the help of training programmes, new employee adjusts themselves in a new working environment, culture and technology. Such programs help new comers in socializing and make them feel comfortable.
TRANSFORMING EXPECTATION INTO VISIBLE OUTCOME: It helps organisation to achieve their predetermined targets and goal. Employees know what is their goal and how can they deliver their job with quality performance according to the expectation of the management. That’s why organisations can easily implement their plans Training program helps in bridging the gap between expectations, input and final outcomes.
ENSURE SAFETY AND HEALTH: Training program clearly identifies and acquaint the employees about the different risks involved in their job. Hence the employees get aware of the various risk factors involved and are prepared with precautionary measure in advance leading to safe and healthy environment.
Types of training
The following are the types of training provided in organisations:
Management education normally takes place off the job, but a great deal of learning takes place on the job. According to Smit and de Cronje (2003:73), there have been several recent studies on managerial learning and skills development in South Africa that result from on-the-job experience. This research suggests that managers learn most from assignments that are very difficult and challenging. A programme of management education should include assignments and job rotation plans that stretch managers to their limits (Grobler, Warnich, Carrel, Elbert and Hatfield, 2006:123).
Sensitivity training includes techniques such as laboratory and t-group training, communication workshops and outward board’s trips. The purpose of sensitivity training is to make employees more aware of their own behaviour and how their behaviour is perceived by others. It also increases the participants’ awareness and acceptance of the differences between them. In terms of this type of training, small groups of eight to fourteen individuals who are strangers to each other are usually grouped together and assisted by a trainer. During the discussion, employees discuss themselves, their feelings, and the group process (Grobler et al., 2006:130). The most frequent changes derived from this training include a more favourable self perception, reduced prejudice, improved scores on tests of interpersonal relations, and changes in interpersonal behaviour as observed by others, all of which are particularly relevant in South Africa.
Training and development programmes
In the view of Grobler, Warnich, Carrel, Elbert and Hatfield (2004:345), training needs have to be determined first. In this regard, a basic “communication-linking process” between both parties is required. Training must be addressed in such a way that it covers the employees’ performance-development needs and is in accordance with their job descriptions. Both the employee and the employer have to work together in order to determine what the employees do not know. They must also identify training method which exert an impact on the job, so that he/she can be trained in order to fill that particular gap. The employee should be granted the responsibility to make decisions regarding his/her training, while employers should provide their employees with opportunities to improve their foundational skills so as to enable them to cope with more complex situations. The American Society for Training and Development recommends a minimum of 40 hours of training a year for every employee (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2007:124).
In addition to the previous arguments, McConnell (2004:159) supports a partnership approach between the employees and their companies in determining training needs, as well as the involvement of the employees in setting up training goals. By being involved, employees will not only support the training programmes, but their morale will also be enhanced. Training is a life-long process which must be continued beyond the initial qualification in an effort to SINGAPOREAN Journal of Business Economics and management studies Vol.3, no.3, 2014 78 maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout the person’s working life. Employees should understand how their jobs affect the bottom line. As with training, both company and employee must hold shared/collective responsibilities in the employee education process (Noe, Hollanbeck, Gerhart and Wright, 2003:399). Firstly, the employee must carry out self-assessment, where he/she is expected to identify his/her opportunities and needs for improvement. The second step is a reality check where the employee identifies which needs can realistically be developed. The third step comprises goal setting. Here, the employee identifies goals and methods in order to determine his/her progress towards the goal. The final step consists of action planning, where steps and timetables are identified in order to reach the desired level of development. During the self-assessment stage, employee behaviour is expected to provide assessment information in order to identify the strengths, weaknesses, interests and values pertaining to the career of the individual.
During the reality check, the company communicates the performance evaluation, and where the employee fits in regarding the long-range plans of the company. During the goal-setting stage, the company ensures that goals are specific, challenging and attainable. Subsequently, the company must make a commitment to assist the employee in reaching the goal. During the final stage, the company identifies the resources that the employee will need to reach the goal, including courses and work experience.
Factors that hinder the training and development of employers
Robbins et al. (2003:231) points out that many employers are opposed to training and development initiatives because they assume that the responsibility for training people to be workers falls on the school system, not on firms. In addition, they consider that it is the responsibility of the employees to learn how to do their job so that they are hired. Furthermore, they regard training and development programmes as an expense which it is difficult to convince shareholders to approve. According to the perspective of the researcher and with the goals, mission and objective of the organisation, and supported by both the employer and the employee, training, development and education programmes delivered the right way and at the right time provide substantial returns for the employer in terms of increased productivity, knowledge, loyalty and profit (Robbins et al., 2003:401).
In spite of the innumerable reasons and benefits derived from training, in most cases training and development programmes fail. This is regardless of whether the courses were attended in the best universities or delivered by the most prominent trainers. Perry (2007:282) asserts that work appears among the first illustrations outlining the clear reasons why training and development programmes fail. His study was seconded by Kleiman (2003:389), who addressed the failures of training and development programmes in greater depth. In these two works, the first reason identified for the failure of training and development programmes stems from the training objectives not being aligned with the business needs. If the root of the problem of poor performance, for instance, it is related to factors such as reward systems, job design and motivation, which are not related to training, training will be pointless.
Thirdly, in the absence of objectives to provide direction and focus, training will certainly not succeed. Training and development should include a focused process that allows the employee to ponder desired results. Objectives afford important direction and focus for learning the final product, which is a change in job performance. Researchers also hold that when training is too expensive if compared to its short-term return on investment, then companies may consider it a failure and, therefore, unacceptable. However, the long-term pay-off may be rewarding. Training will be worthless if the participants regard the training programme as a mere event without any change to their behaviour. Whenever training is considered as a single event, the chances of behaviour change are slim. Training is also likely to fail if participants are not held accountable for the results.
Generally, employees are not held accountable for the use of the contents of their course in the workplace. Unless they are held accountable, no change will occur in their behaviour (Kleiman, 2003:49). If the conditions are not conducive to learning, the training efforts will have been in vain. Moreover, without the support of line management training will also fail. When there is no support from direct managers/supervisors, the employees will resist implementing the new skills and knowledge acquired during the training course. Management involvement is crucial to the learning process. Another reason for the failure of training and development occurs when the company fails to isolate the effects of training and development. However, other factors rather than training may influence performance. Thus, the advances directly related to training must be isolated. If not, some training programmes clearly noticeable as impacting on the bottom line may be discarded as irrelevant. For the success of a training programme, top executives’ commitment is critical. Top management will not only allocate resources but, for the training and development to succeed, will also participate in the design of the process. Lastly, training and development will be unsuccessful if there is a failure to provide feedback and use information about results. If the company fails to evaluate training by providing feedback, employees will not be able to know about their progress, nor facilitators to understand the success of their programmes. At KSD Municipality, employees are provided with training; however, after training they fail to transfer whatever they have learnt to their working environment in order to improve performance. When an employee retires or leaves the organisation it becomes difficult to find someone internally to fill the vacant post, even though other employees have been sent for training for such positions. It has been found that adults prefer different training methods to younger employees; older adults prefer practical training methods to classroom training (theoretical training
9.3 FACTORS AFFECTING TRAINING
Feedback is a very important condition for the successful acquisition of skills. Training can be done mentally, where the employees go over the events in their heads in order to be properly prepared. It is important that information is given correctly in the early stages of learning. This is so because if errors are not picked up early, the employee will be greatly disadvantaged when someone spots them later. Indeed, if the employees have been applying such faulty skills for years, it may mean that they are never fixed. The role practice in the business of skills acquisition is very important when one thinks how much time employees spend perfecting the skills involved in their tasks. The main purpose of job training is to give employees the knowledge and skills they need to perform effectively in their fields of expertise.
According to Kreitner and Kinicki(2007:69), there are a number of factors on the job that prevent transfer of learning. These include the following:
If learner see no value in applying new skills, believe no rewards will result from doing so, or do not value the rewards, and then transfer of learning from classroom to the job will not occur.
If individuals have little or no latitude to change what they do because the job tasks are too tightly controlled, then training can never be applied unless task controls are relaxed.
If a learner’s supervisor is not in favour of training, then there is little or no likelihood that a learner will be applying newly acquired skills. Supervisors exert a powerful influence over the behaviour of subordinates because they control rewards and punishment.
If a trainee returns to the project field only to find that fellow workers greet new ideas with scepticism, then training will not be imparted successfully.
Cascio(2005:342) enumerates other factors that affect training ,these are explained below :
Funding for employee training: Adequate funding continues to be a concern. While the need for resources to provide employee training and development increases, funding may not be available. In fact, funding for training and development may be one of the first items to be eliminated in times of financial constraints.
Less job security: employees in the private sector (and employee in general) have less job security than previously. It is often said that people can expect to have many different employees and even different career during their work life. Given this idea and reality, employees will continuously search for employers who will provide them with opportunities to develop transferable skills.
Limited opportunities for development: most organisations have a flat organisational structure. This means that there is little room for promotion. Employees and organisations need to embrace the idea that moving up is not the only way to be satisfied with one’s work. An alternative is to create challenges for employees in their current positions or in a similar position.
9.4 Employee training
Training addresses gaps or discrepancies between an ideal and an optimal stage of development. However, from a comparison between desired and actual work methods or between desired and actual results, needs arise on job. Smit and de Cronje(2003:78) referto the three methods for identifying needs: the generic methods,performance analysis, and competency assessment. Where performance analysis focuses on deficiencies or problems,competency assessment focuses on opportunity for improvement.
Trainer identity how they believe people should perform and then design a training programme to give the workers the skills they need. Training can only be executed when it has been determined which employee should receive training and what their current levels, knowledge and skills are. Consequently, the assessment of the individual will indicate the range of skills and knowledge that is to be acquired. Note that the different between actual performance and required performance will ultimately from the training gap, and therefore indicates the extent of training needed.
9.5 STAGES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS: Training should be conducted in a systematic order so as to derive expected benefits from it. The training system involves four stages namely:
Assessment of training and development program’s needs.
Designing the training and development programs.
Implementation of training program.
Evaluation of the training programs.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES
In the view of Grobler, Warnich, Carrel, Elbert and Hatfield(2004:345), training needs have to be determined first. In this regard, a basic “communication-liking process” between both parties is required. Training must be addressed in such a way that it cover the employee performance-development needs and is in accordance with their job descriptions. Both the employee and employer have to work together in order to determine what employees do not know. They must also identify training method which exert an impact on the job, so that he/she can be trained in order to fill that particular gap. The employee should be granted the responsibility to make decisions regarding his/her training, while employers should provide their employees with opportunities to improve their foundational skills so as to enable them to cope with more complex situation. American society for training and development recommends a minimum of 40 hours of training a year of every employee(Kreitner and Kinicki,2007:124).
In addition to the previous argument, Mc Connell(2004:156) supports a partnership approach between the employees and their companies in determining training needs, as well as the involvement of the employees in setting up training goals. By being involved, employees will not only support the training programmes,but their morale will also be enhanced. Training is a life-long process which must be continued beyond the initial qualification in an effort to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout the person’s working life. Employees should understand how their jobs effect the bottom line. As with training, both company and employee must hold collective responsibilities in the employee education process(Noe, Hollanbeck, Gerhart and Wright,2003:399).
Firstly, the employee must carry out self-assessment, where he/she is expected to identify his/her opportunities and needs for improvement. The second step is a reality check where the employee identifies which needs can realistically be developed. The third step comprises goal setting. Here, the employee identifies goals and methods in order to determine his/her progress towards the goal. The final step consists of action planning, where steps and timetables are identified in order to reach the desired level of development.
During the self-assessment stage, employee behaviour is expected to provide assessment information in order to identify the strengths, weaknesses, interests and values pertaining to the career of the individual. During the reality check, the company communicates the performance evaluation, and where the employee fits in regarding the long-range plans of the company. During the goal-setting stage, the company ensures that goals are specific, challenging and attainable. Subsequently, the company must make a commitment to assist the employee in reaching the goal. During the final stage, the company identifies the resources that the employee will need to reach the goal, including courses and work experience.
Factors affecting employee performance
According to Anderson(2003:122), the following are the factors affecting employee performance to increase service delivery:
Hiring employees who do not have the proper background for their job is one of the things that start a performance downwards spiral(Anderson, 2003:122). Company training should be used to enhance the employee’s background. If an employee has undergone extensive training but is still experiencing performance issues, then the problem could be that the problem could be that the employee does not possess the necessary experience to do the job.
As much as an employer may not want to be affected by the personal life of his employees, personal problems can sometimes affect employee performance. Managers need to be sensitive to employee’s personal problems, and be prepared to discuss the issues with employees when necessary. If an employee requires time off to deal with a personal problem, then granting that time off will help to show all employees that the company values them(Anderson,2003).
If an employee does not get feedback from his/her manager, then he/she has no idea how to rate his/her performance. Managers should be trained to give positive and negative employee feedback. In negative situations, the manager should work with the employee to create a programme that will help address the performance shortcomings. It is easier for employees to improve their performance when they know what they are doing right and what they are doing wrong (Anderson, 2003).
To help employees improve their performance, employers need to set goals that employees are required to achieve. Performing to the minimum standards means the employee is doing his job, and that can help an employee understand what is expected of him at a minimum. It would also be helpful to create incentives that will give employees motivation to go beyond the set goals (Anderson, 2003).
Types of training and development programs which are provided to the employee.
10. Research design
*The research will be in the form of descriptive survey. This is an ideal methodology when collecting information about people’s attitudes, opinions, habits or any of the variety of education or social issues. It is a method of collecting information by interviewing or administering a questionnaire to a sample individuals.
11. research methods
There are variety of techniques that can be used to collect data in a quantitative research study. However, all of them are geared towards numerical collection. In quantitative research, the data are collected and recorded systematically, and these are then organised so that they can be entered into a computer database.
Population relates to the entire set of data that is of interest to the researcher, and the “target population” refer to the group of people or objects from which the sample should be taken because it is not feasible to collect data for the entire statistical population, a sample which is a representative of the population, was drawn from the employees of KSD Municipality. These participants who were randomly selected range from entry-level employees to senior management.
Sampling is the process of selecting a number of individuals from a population for study purposes, who would then be representation of the entire population, from which they were selected form. Therefore, a population can be defined as including all people or items with the same or similar characteristic to be studied. Due to time constraints, it would be difficult to study the entire group, thus, the aim is to find a representative sample of that population. Sampling it will help this study to gather, collect data about the population in order to make an interpretation that can be generalised to the population.
The type of sample technique that this study will use is probability sample. Under probability the study will go with random sampling because every member has an equal chance.
14.select sampling size or frame
The sample size aims to have an appropriate number of respondents to participate in the study.
Training and development is the tonic that employees need to enhance their performance and potentials that will in turn enhance organization effectiveness. Training and development programs play a vital role in every organization. These programs improve Employee Performance at workplace, it updates Employee Knowledge and enhances their personal Skills and it helps in avoiding Managerial Obsolescence. Effective implementation of these programmes, enables management to evaluate the job performance and accordingly take decisions like employee promotion, rewards, compensations, welfare facilities, etc. Training programs also aide the managers in succession planning, employee retention, satisfaction, job-skill match, skill development and motivation. It creates Efficient and Effective employees in the Organization.
Training Need Assessment should be a regular practice. It should be implemented at all the levels of organization It should not be taken as an event, rather an on-going process .If implemented properly, might lead to many interventions, thereby leading to organization Development. I recommend that post training, its effect should be evaluated on regular basis in terms of motivational levels, job satisfaction and overall productivity of employees.
Training programs should try to revitalize the whole system thereby making organization capable of winning a competitive advantage. More Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and Vocational Training Institutes should be opened in every state and the course curriculum of them should be redesigned and continuously updated to meet the changing requirements of the industry. Industry associations may be involved in developing course curriculum and in-plant training be made compulsory part of course curriculum. Through government support, initiative can be taken to identify skill deficiency with the current manpower and future human resource planning can be done accordingly. Lastly, proper feedback from employees shall be collated for analysing the effectiveness of training sessions, on regular basis.